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Product Code: 00007108

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 Soil and water, knife, wall, hand table swab samples were collected from Ubakala Abattoir situated in Umuahia, Abia State. The water samples collected for this purpose were tap water and wastewater from different sites of abattoir and the gutter where the workers dispose the waste water. Soil samples were collected from the sites where they dump the solid waste. The bacteria isolated from the collected samples were Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coliShigella.,  Staphylococcus aureus., Salmonella sp. and Klebsiella sp. The percentage occurrence showed that Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus,  and Salmonella showed highest prevalence 3(80%) respectively followed by Shigella 6 (60%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3 (30%), Klebsiella 3 (30%) while Bacillus 2(20%) showed the least the occurrence. Susceptibility test of some of the isolates revealed that most of the isolates are resistant to almost all the antibiotics tested but Staphylococcus aureus  and Bacillus  were more sensitive to the tested antimicrobial drugs.


Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                       v

Lists of Tables                                                                                                             vii

List of Figures                                                                                                             viii

Abstract                                                                                                                      ix



1.0        Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.1       Aims and Objectives                                                                                       6

1.2       Objectives                                                                                                       6



2.0       Literature Review                                                                                           7

2.1       Pathogenic Organisms Associated with Slaughter House                              16

2.1.1    Escherichia coli                                                                                               17

2.1.2    Salmonella                                                                                                      18

2.2       Transmission of Pathogens from Abattoir Waste                                           19

2.2.1    Transmission by birds                                                                                     19

2.2.2    The Marabou stork                                                                                          20



3.0       Materials and Methods                                                                                   23       

3.1       Collection of Samples                                                                                     23

3.2       Media Used                                                                                                    23

3.3       Sterilization                                                                                                     23

3.4       Microbiological Analysis                                                                                23

3.5       Identification and Characterization of Isolates                                              24

3.6       Gram Staining                                                                                                 24

3.7       Biochemical Cultural Characteristics                                                              24

3.7.1    Catalase test                                                                                                    24

3.7.2    Coagulase test                                                                                                 25

3.7.3    Citrate test                                                                                                      25

3.7.4    Motility test                                                                                                    25

3.7.5    Indole test                                                                                                       25

3.7.6    Oxidase test                                                                                                    26

3.7.7    Sugar fermentation                                                                                         26

3.8       Antimicrobial Sensitivity Testing                                                                   27



4.0       Results                                                                                                            28



5.0       Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation                                               32

5.1       Discussion                                                                                                       32

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      34

5.3       Recommendation                                                                                            35

            References                                                                                                      36







Table                                                  Title                                                                Page


1:                     Biochemical characterization of isolated microorganisms

from slaughter house                                                                           29


2:                     Occurrence of bacteria isolates from slaughter house                         30




3:                     Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated microorganisms

form slaughter house                                                                           31









Figure                                                 Title                                                                Page


1:                     Unhygienic slaughter process at the slaughter slab

of the abattoir at Ubakala.                                                                  16



2:                     A marabou stork nesting                                                                     21










                                                    CHAPTER ONE


Antibiotic resistance means that bacteria can resist the effect of one or more antibiotics (ECDC, 2013). Some bacteria are resistant to antibiotics naturally but bacteria can also acquire resistance (ECDC, 2013). Infections caused by bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics can lead to failure of conventional treatment, longer treatments and death. Antibiotic resistance also leads to higher medical costs and endangers the success of certain treatments (WHO 2013).

It is well known that animals can harbor antibiotic resistant and zoonotic pathogens (By water

et al. 2004; de Jong et al., 2012). Multiple drug resistance have been suggested to be defined as when a bacteria has acquired resistance to one or more antibiotics in at least three antimicrobial categories (Magiorakos et al., 2012). Pathogens that are resistant to antibiotics can be transmitted from animals to humans and vice versa (ECDC2013).

Antibiotic resistant bacteria that are non-pathogenic and part of the normal intestinal flora have been shown to be able to transfer resistance genes to pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella and EHEC O157:H7 (Blake et al. 2003). Resistant bacteria present in animals can also transfer resistance genes to bacteria that are part of the human normal intestinal flora if they are transferred to humans (van den Bogaard and Stobberingh 2000). There are several studies that have established the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in abattoir waste (Abiade-Paul, Kene and  Chah 2005; Nwanta, Onunkwo and Ezenduka 2010; Atieno, Owuor and Omwoyo 2013) and among these bacteria multidrug resistant Salmonella ( Nwanta, Onunkwo and Ezenduka 2010) and EHEC 0157:H7 (Olatoye, Amosun and Ogundipe, 2012) have been found. As well Escherichia coli resistant to several antibiotics have previously been found, in faeces from animals taken for slaughter at abattoirs in Kampala (Byarugaba et al., 2011).Resistant Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. have previously been isolated from wild birds and have been suggested as a danger to human health if spread to humans via faecal contaminated water (Radhouani et al. ,2012). In a study by Chang et al. (2010) that investigated the presence of antibiotics in sewage samples antibiotics were found in the effluents from an abattoir.

Abattoir effluents are waste water derived from animals laughtering activities in abattoirs, consisting mainly of intestinal contents, blood and water. Abattoir effluent like other types of discharged sewage, eventually enter natural bodies of water like ground water, streams, rivers, lakes and oceans as a result of natural drainage pattern and sequence (Madigan et al.,1997; Pelczar et al.,2002). These water bodies are used by human beings for drinking, household, industrial, agricultural (irrigation), swimming and other recreational purposes.

Drinking water and recreational water have been implicated in the transmission of pathogens, and it was opined that the source of contamination could be either sewage or infected animals (Muniesa et al., 2006; Sehgalet al., 2008).

A number of bacteria species, including coliforms and Listeria can be present in the intestines of some humans and animals, including birds without causing infection (Ramaswany et al., 2007).

The Genus Listeria consists, mainly, of 8 species, namely Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii, Listeriaseeligeri, Listeria innocua, Listeria welshimeri, Listeriagrayi, Listeria marthii and Listeria rocourtiae (Liu 2006;den Bakker et al., 2010). Out of these eight species of Listeria, only Listeria monocytogenes (pathogenic to human and animals) and Listeria ivanovii (pathogenic to animals) are regarded as pathogens, while all other species are generally regarded as non-pathogenic (Lawand Donachie 1997; Liu 2006). However, there have been, of recent, reported cases of human infection with Listeria ivanovii, Listeria seeligeri, Listeria innocua and

Listeria welshimeri (Rocout et al., 1986; Andre andGenicot 1987; Allenberger 2002; Perrin et al., 2003).

Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular, food borneand zoonotic pathogen. It is the aetiological agent of thedisease, listeriosis (Portnoy et al., 2002; Chen et al.,2007; Rebagliati et al., 2009). Listeriosis is a regularly reported disease in Europe and North America but only a

few sporadic cases have been reported in Africa and other developing countries where the food industry is notvery developed (Ennaji et al., 2008).

There are invasive and non invasive forms of infection with Listeria monocytogenes (Françiosa et al.,2001; Vazquez-Boland et al., 2001). The non invasive form which is characterized by gastroenteritis in theabsence of more serious symptoms like septicemia, meningitis, abortion etc, following food borne infection with Listeria monocytogenes, has only recently been definitively determined by Dalton et al., 1997 (Dalton etal., 1997; Ramaswany et al. 2000, Françoisa et al.,2001). It has been suggested that the occurrence of noninvasive listeriosis may be underestimated as Listeria monocytogenes is not among the pathogens routinely investigated in outbreaks of gastro - intestinal disease (Franciosa et al., 2001; Ramaswany et al., 2007).

The disposal of abattoir effluent which feeds natural bodies of water and the monitoring of the bacterial status of such effluent are of public health significance (Madiganet al., 1997; Black et al., 1998), especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where abattoir effluent are discharged untreated. Abattoir effluent, like other types of industrial sewage are supposed to undergo various stages of treatment to eliminate or remove bacterial content before being discharged into drainage to enter the natural bodies of water (Hug et al., 2005; Nestar et al., 1998).

Furthermore, the presence of various types of bacteria species in abattoir effluent makes it a conducive environment for the transmission of antimicrobial resistance amongst them (Mach and Grimes, 1982).

Antimicrobial resistance has generally undergone near exponential increase in the past decades (Safdar and Armstrong, 2003). Prophylactic use of common broad spectrum antibiotics as well as empirical preemptive therapy in high risk settings, or indiscriminate usage, particularly in developing nations, has further accentuated this trend, especially in patients with underlying malignancy (Safdar and Armstrong, 2003;Bondarinzadeh, 2007).Listeria organisms are generally known to be antibiotic susceptible in developed nations (Boisivon et al., 1990).

The situation in Nigeria and other African countries is not well known, but bacteria generally, are known to be resistant to commonly used antibiotics like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, septrin etc (Akano et al.,2009).

Moreover, studies have shown that plasmids carrying antibiotic resistant genes can successfully transfer genetic codes from Enterococcus faecalis to Listeria monocytogenes (Poyart –Salmeron et al., 1990). This observation has raised serious concerns regarding possible emergence of antibiotic resistance and the choice of optimal initial therapy for severe listeric infection especially in compromised individuals (Safdar and Armstrong, 2003).

Abattoir effluents refer to water ladened with waste materials generated from an abattoir. Such waste materials are highly nitrogenous, biodegradable with high concentration of suspended and

dissolved solids, fat scraps, blood, gut contents, detergents, hair and hide scraps (Alonge, 2001). These dissolved and suspended substances as well as microbes present, account for the colour, smell, and other physicochemical and microbiological properties of the abattoir effluents (Coker, 2001).Abattoir effluents whether it reaches the surface water through a point source or non-point source reduce oxygen in water and endanger aquatic life (Cecil, 2005). Leachates of these effluents which have large number of microbes dangerously do pollute shallow and hand dug wells (Meadows, 1995). The organic nutrients added to groundwater produce excessive microbial growth causing unpleasant taste and odours of water from this source (Liu,2002; Odeyemi et al, 2014).

Globally efforts have been directed towards nipping in the bud the problems of waste and environmental pollution. In many parts of the world the issue of environmental health is now being taken with utmost importance. However, in Nigeria, like in many other developing countries, discharge of untreated wastes into the environment is still a problem. Compromised water quality and poor sanitary conditions of abattoirs in the livestock sector have added in no small way to the problem (Adeyemo et al, 2002).

Realizing the significance of abattoir wastes on the environment and public health, this work seeks to investigate the effects of run offs and percolates of abattoir into surface and groundwater to give more in sightin to the implications of abattoir effluents on the environment and public health.



The aim of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of microorganisms isolated from slaughterhouse.


1.2       OBJECTIVES

1. To isolate and identify microorganisms associated with slaughterhouse waste water.

2. To isolate and identify pathogenic microorganisms associated with slaughterhouse butchering points at Ubakala, Umuahia South Abia State.



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