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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007829

No of Pages: 39

No of Chapters: 5

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This research was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial properties of Piper guinens is. The leaf was bought from a local market dried and crushed into powder. The Leaf powder was sieved using whatman no.1 filter paper and extracted using two solvents of extraction (ethanol and cold water). The Phytochemicals analyzed for were tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and glycosides using the methods prescribed by Trease and Evans (1989) and Harbone (1998). The antibacterial screening of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was carried out using two methods Agar Well Diffusion Method and Disk Diffusion Method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacterial concentration were determined. The results in this study showed that the leaf extracts of P. guineense inhibited the growth of S. aureus, E. coli and S. typhimurium suggesting its antibacterial activity. Higher antibacterial activity of the extracts was observed against S. typhimurium followed by E. coli and then S. aureus. This study shows that the aqueous extract of P. guineense showed less antibacterial activity than the ethanolic extracts against the pathogenic organisms. Also the agar well diffusion method was known to exhibit higher antibacterial activity on the isolates than the disk diffusion method.


Title Page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Declaration iv

Acknowledgements v

Table of Contents vi

Abstract vii


1.1   Introduction 1

1.2    Aims and Objectives 3

1.3    Limitation of Study 3


2.0    Literature Review 4

2.1    Scientific Classification 4

2.2    Cultivation and Distribution 4

2.3    Properties 5

2.4    Phytochemicals 5

2.5    Uses 6

2.6    Toxicity 6

2.7     Pathogenesis of Test Organisms 7

2.7.1Escherichia coli 7

2.7.2Staphylococcus aureus 8

2.7.3 Salmonella typhimurium 10


3.0 Materials and Methods 12

3.1 Collection of Plant Materials 12

3.2     Preparation of Extracts 12

3.3      Sources of Test Organisms 13

3.4       Determination of Antibacterial Activity of Extracts 14

3.5       Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (Mic) of Extracts 15

3.6     Determination of Minimum Bacterial Concentration 15

3.7     Phytochemical Analysis 16


4.0 Results 18


5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation 28

5.1 Discussion 28

5.2 Conclusion 30

5.3 Recommendation 30





Plants have provided a source of inspiration for novel drug compounds, as plant derived medicines have made large contributions to human health and wellbeing. Plant extracts have been used for a wide variety of purposes for many thousands of years (Jones, 1996). The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has formed the basis of many applications, including raw and processed food preservatives, pharmaceuticals, alternative medicine and natural therapies (Reynolds, 1996), (Lis-Balchin and Deans, 1997). The use of traditional medicine is widespread throughout the world. The term traditional medicine is interchangeably used with herbal medicine and natural medicine (Hazan and Atta, 2005).

There is growing interest in exploiting plants for medicinal purposes especially in Africa; this is due to the fact that microorganisms are developing resistance to many drugs and as such created situation where some of the common and less expensive antimicrobial agents are loosing effectiveness (Monteforeet al., 1989). These medicinal plants have immensely contributed to the development of human health and welfare. Concomitantly, there is an increase in data and huge     patronage to herbal products round the world (Omoseyindemi, 2003);(Elsenberget al., 1990). According to the World Health Organization, 80% of the world’s population relies on traditional medicines to meet their health regiments (Maffi, 1999). A medicinal plant is any plant which, in one or more of its organs, certain substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes or which are precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs.

A number of plants have been used in traditional medicine for many years due to their antimicrobial properties (Sofowara, 1993). Specifically, the medicinal value of these plants lies in some chemical substances that produce a definite physiological action on the human or animal body (Edeogaet al., 2005). The most important of these bioactive constituents which are mainly secondary metabolites are alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These phytochemicals are toxic to microbial cells; thus medicinal plants contain a number of the compounds which may be potential antibacterial for the treatment of common bacterial infections (Ratnasooriyaet al., 2005).

Plant derived medicines are relatively safer than synthetic alternatives, offering profound therapeutic benefits and more affordable treatments (Kareem et al., 2010). Herbal medicines use medicinal plants primarily presents as an alternative to such situation (Sofowara, 1993).

       Medicinal plants such as Piper guineense has been asserted to provide various culinary and medicinal properties (Scott et al., 2005). These medicinal properties exert bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects on some organisms. These effects have been attributed to the peptides, alkaloids, essential oils, phenols and flavonoids which are major compounds in these plants (Okigbo and Igwe, 2007).

          This study assessed the antibacterial activity of Piper guineenseleaf extract and will serve as a means of exploration for new and novel bioactive compounds.


1. To determine the antibacterial effects of Piper guineense on Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli

2. To determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the extracts

3. To determine the Minimum Bacterial Concentration of the extracts.

4. To ascertain its phytochemical components


This work had a few challenges which do not necessarily discredit the authencity of the results, but opens this work to a secondary research. The limitations encountered during the course of this work include lack of adequate finance, limited duration, unfavorable condition and inconsistent power source.

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