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This study ascertained the performance differentials among male and female employees of Federal Universities in Southeast of Nigeria, with a focus on; Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike (MOUAU), the Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO) and the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN)It was aimed at achieving six specific objectives namely; examine the differences in the workplace-related factors (HR functions, organisational climate, task, training and development, ethical concerns) for the male and female employees; ascertain the male and female employees’ perception of the accuracy and fairness of the performance appraisal system; determine the level of performance differentials between male and female employees in the University System under study; assess the effect of the performance appraisal on the motivation of male and female employees; explore if there are any discriminatory factors (age, childbearing, skills, educational attainment, promotion, training opportunities, unionism, responsibilities and appointment to critical positions) in terms of how male and female employees should perform in their schedule as University employees; identify barriers that mainly affect female employees in the University system The result showed that majority of the respondents were male, the age distribution of the respondents showed that, holistically and collectively for the male and female, a more significant percentage of the respondents where between the ages of 36 and 40 years.  The distribution on nature of appointment showed that  more were significantly on permanent appointment and also a more significant percentage of the respondents' were non-academic staff. Also, a higher percentage of the respondents had served for about 7 – 11 yearsOffice space; interpersonal relationship; appraisal; organisational climate; rules; regulations and ethics; nature of employment; training tasks and responsibilities affect the female employees, while all these factors except office space do not affect male employees. The regression results for the workplace factors that affect the employees and their perception towards these factors revealed that out of the eight explanatory variables five were significant at  different levels of significance and also in their relationship pattern. Both genders had a high level of fair perception for the appraisal system adopted in theiinstitutions. Good understanding of job description, a good understanding of tasks and personal rating on performance were used as a yardstick for measuring performance. The motivation types (Salary, overtime, allowance, verbal, appraisal, discipline and personal motivation) have a relevant effect on male employees performance appraisal at the workplace. For the female employees, the number of children, skills, promotion and experience were found to affect the discriminate significant at 10 per cent significance level, while responsibility was significant at 5 percent level of significance. Male employees have all their factors to be positively significant but at a different level of significance. Some recommendations were proffered, which include that gender sensitive performance appraisal method should be encouraged and  that staff appointment into positions of authority should be on merit base not on gender biases or discrimination.



Title Page                                                                                                                                                           i

Declaration                                                                                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                                                                                         iii

Certification                                                                                                                                                                     iv

Acknowledgment                                                                                                                                             v

Table of Contents                                                                                                                                             vi

List of Tables                                                                                                                                                     viii

List of Figures                                                                                                                                                    ix

Abstract                                                                                                                                                              x


CHAPTER 1:   INTRODUCTION                                

1.1         Background of the Study                                                                                                                  1

1.2         Statement of the Problem                                                                                                               4

1.3         Objectives of the Study                                                                                                                     7

1.4         Research Questions                                                                                                                          8

1.5         Research Hypotheses                                                                                                                       9

1.6         significance of the study                                                                                                                   9

1.7         Scope of the Study                                                                                                                             10

1.8         Limitations of the Study                                                                                                                   10

1.9         Profile of the Organization Under Study                                                                                       11

1.10       Operational Definitions of Terms                                                                                                   15



2.1         Conceptual Framework                                                                                                                    16

2.1.1     Performance in the University                                                                                                        16

2.1.1:1  Measures for Employee Performance                                                                                           18

2.1.2     Performance Differentials in the University                                                                                 19

2.1.2:1  Mastery-Approach Orientation and Performance at the Intra-Individual Level                    20

2..1.2:2 Performance Orientation and Performance at Both Levels of Analysis                                           21

2.1.3     Gender Focus                                                                                                                                     23

2.1.4     Gender Discrimination                                                                                                                     26         

2.1.5     Gender Sensitivity                                                                                                                              33

2.1.5:1  Gender Sensitivity in Recruitment Process of Organization in Africa                                           34

2.1.5:2  Causes of Gender Insensitivity in The Recruitment of Workers in Organization                    34

2.1.5:3  Gender Sensitivity in the Retention Process of Organizations                                                  35

2.1.5:4  Causes of Gender Insensitivity in the Retention of Workers in Organization                    36

2.1.6     Gender Parity                                                                                                                                     36

2.1.7     Laws, Policies, Rules and Regulations in the University on Gender and                       

              Performance                                                                                                                                       37

2.1.8     Structure of Federal Universities in Nigeria                                                                                  41

2.1.9     Roles and Responsibilities of Entities making up the structure                                                 44

2.2         Theoretical Framework                                                                                                                    47

2.2.1     Theories of Performance and motivation (Frederick Taylor)                                                     47  Goal-setting Theory (Edwin Locke)                                                                                                 48 Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom)                                                                                                  49   Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow)                                                                          49  Frederick Herzberg’s Theory (Frederick Herzberg)                                                                      50  McGregor Theory X and Y (McGregor)                                                                                          51

2.2.2     Theories of Gender                                                                                                                           52

2.2.2:1  Gender Schema Theory (Sandra Ben)                                                                                            52

2.2.2:2  Gender Constancy (Lawrence Kohlberg)                                                                                       54

2.2.3     Theories on Gender Discrimination and Equality                                                                        55  Theories of Gender Discrimination                                                                                                55 The glass ceiling theory/model (The Federal Glass Ceiling Commission)                                  55  The Glass Elevator Theory (Williams)                                                                                         57  Theories of Gender Equality                                                                                                            58

2.3         Empirical Review                                                                                                                                62

2.3.1     Empirical Review on Performance Analysis                                                                                  62

2.3.2     Empirical Review on Performance Differences                                                                            67

2.3.3     Empirical Review on Gender Analysis                                                                                            71

2.4         Gap In Literature                                                                                                                                75

2.5         Summary of Reviewed Related Literature                                                                                     75



3.1         Research Design                                                                                                                                 77

3.2         Area of Study                                                                                                                                      77

3.3         Sources of Data                                                                                                                                  78

3.4         Population of the Study                                                                                                                    78

3.5         Sample Size Determination                                                                                                             79

3.6         Sampling Technique                                                                                                                          82

3.7         Description of the Research Instrument                                                                                       82

3.8         Validity of the Research Instrument                                                                                              83

3.9         Reliability of the Research Instrument                                                                                          83

3.10       Method of data Analysis                                                                                                                  84

3.10.1   Model Specifications                                                                                                                         84



4.1         Data Presentation                                                                                                                              87

4.2         Data Analysis                                                                                                                                        88

4.3.        Test of Hypotheses                                                                                                                             92

4.4.        Discussion of Results                                                                                                                         105



5.1         Summary of findings                                                                                                                         108

5.2         Conclusion                                                                                                                                         110

5.3         Recommendations                                                                                                                            110

5.4         Suggestion for further Studies                                                                                                         112

References                                                                                                                                          113

Appendix                                                                                                                                             124




Table 3.1         The Population of the Study                                                                                 79

Table 4.1         Distribution of the Respondents According to Gender                                          87

Table 4.2         Age Distribution of the Respondents                                                                   88

Table 4.3         Distribution of Respondents According to the nature of the Appointment               89

Table 4.4         Distribution of Respondents According to Academic/Non Academic Status      89

Table 4.5         Distribution of Respondents According to years of Experience                        90

Table 4.6         Distribution of Respondents According to the Number of Children                            91

Table 4.7         Perception of appraisal as fair and accurate by male and female employees      92

Table 4.8         Difference in the Perception of  male and female employees                         92

Table 4. 9        Male employees’ response to the motivation types                                                  93

Table 4. 10      Female employees response  to the motivation types                                           94

Table 4. 11      ANOVA: differential of the effect of performance appraisal on the                 

                        motivation of  male and female employees                                                          95


Table 4. 12      Workplace related factors affecting the male and female employees                  96

Table 4. 13     Regression result on gender ladenness of the workplace factors                   97

Table 4. 14      Z-test on the difference in the workplace factors affecting male and female   

                        employees                                                                                                             98

Table 4.15       Fisher's linear discriminant functions on factors that discriminate against                  

                        male and female employees performance in the workplace                                          99

Table 4. 16      Level of performance by the male employees                                                            100

Table 4. 17      Level of performance by the female employees                                                  101

Table 4. 18      ANOVA: Performance differential among male and female employees            102

Table 4. 19      Barriers that mainly affect male and female employees in the University       

                        system                                                                                                                  103

Table 4. 20      Barriers that mainly affects female employees in the University system                 

                        (test of hypothesis)                                                                                                             104











Figure  1           University Organogram/Organizational structure                                         43









1.1 Background of the Study

Globally, Universities are critical institutions for the development of societies; they produce graduates with the required skills for national development and growth. The number of Universities in Nigeria has continued to grow, the first University (University College, Ibadan) was founded in 1948 and currently, there are over 170 universities in Nigeria (Eboiyehi & Fayomi, 2016). The Federal Government of Nigeria owns federal Universities in Nigeria with the Governing Councils as the highest decision-making organ of the Universities. Federal Universities in Nigeria are non-profit organisations to foster research, teaching and learning. The federal Universities in Nigeria are expected to follow the principle of federal character in the recruitment and general administration of the Universities. Nigeria signed the charter on Convention of Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination (CEAFD) against women and has established some projects for the implementation of the articles of the CEAFD, but has not enacted the laws and institutional framework for the implementation of the articles of the convention. Even though the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria makes provision for equality of women and men, the administration of Universities is expected not to discriminate based on tribe, religion or gender.

The Federal University, as a working environment, is expected to offer equal opportunities to men and women to attain their professional goals. Despite this supposed equal opportunity to both male and female staff of the federal Universities, it has not been a reflection of the exact position. For instance, there are more male Deans and Heads of Departments as well as very rare female Vice-Chancellors in the federal Universities (Ogbogu, 2011). An assessment of the various Nigerian University Acts, which govern the establishment and administration of each University in Nigeria shows that, in general, they contain a clause prohibiting the exclusion of individual on account of "ethnic grouping, sex, place of birth or family origin or religious or political persuasion from studentship, employment or membership of any body established by the Act (Odejide, 2015).

A proper university administration with the required skills and experience abhors gender-based discrimination (Gbrevevbie, Osibanjo, Adeniyi & Oludayo, 2014). Staff members of the UniversityUniversity are either academic or administrative staff; they can be further classified as management staff and non-management staff or senior staff and junior staff. These classifications are based on the roles, responsibilities and qualifications, respectively. To achieve set organisational goals and performance standards in the University system; there should be equal opportunities for all to reach their potential. A weak university administration, irrespective of gender results in an inefficient working environment. The emphasis of women engagement in the universities has focused on the number recruited instead of the introspection into the roles and perceptions of women who are staff members of the UniversityUniversity regarding the impact and the significance of their position in the UniversityUniversity. Alele-William (1992) and Makarova, Aeschilamann and Herzog (2019) noted that there are severe gaps in the perception of men and women in the university system resulting in performance differential among men and women.

It is noteworthy that gender is not the same with issues relating to women alone in any society. According to Mitra (2003), “Gender refers to culturally based expectations of the roles and behaviour of males and females”. Gender is a term for both male and female in social context and difference in attitude and roles (Fayomi, 2005). Gender, as a social concept, is deeply entrenched in social entities and performs a meaningful role in working organisations. The university norms and values are reflected in the manner the university deals with the notion of gender role and identity. The management of gender at workplace appears to be one of the most challenging issues for the Universities all over the world especially in Sub-saharan Africa because the gender diversity measures and factors in most of the countries are hampered by some hypercritical issues like male dominating organisational practice, the gender-based wage gap, glass ceiling effects and gender-neutral organisation. Commonly, people are being discriminated on sexual basis throughout their employment tenure at every level and process of working organisations including the selection and recruitment process, promotions, salaries specifications, allocation of responsibilities, working hours etc. There have been concerted efforts to address structural and cultural gender-related barriers, but gender discrimination has remained a severe challenge to the performance of staff employed by the University. There is a need to x-ray the factors and policies peculiar to gender roles and positions in the University system. The issue of gender-related policies is critical in determining the performance of both men and women in the organisation (Odejide, 2015). The gender-based discrimination in most universities are hinged on ethnicity and religion; and the attainment of the university mandate revolves around these staff members that have been mostly influenced by gender-based sentiments (Gberevbie et al., 2014).

Santos and Phu (2018) observed that being a woman has a negative association with academic rank, position and performance; this is even after the woman has made many sacrifices in terms of controlled childbirth and less attention to household chores. The woman does constrain herself from the society demand to contribute to the organisational goal and achieve successful career development. Women in the academia tend to put in more time in research, teaching and administration of the UniversityUniversity, but their academic ranks and position do not reflect their level of commitment to ensure enhanced performance. The performance appraisal in academia is such that gives the superiors the right to determine if the staff has carried out his/her tasks effectively. This performance appraisal system has been criticised by many researchers as being gender insensitive to the peculiarities of men and women in the organisation (Tinuke, 2013; Olomola, 2008 & Ogbogu, 2011). Although the women are more time-restricted in term of maternity leave and household chores compared to their male counterpart, their productivity in the University are not well appreciated. These issues concerning the roles and responsibilities of men and women employed in the Nigeria universities and their performance are very critical in building a viable University system.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The dilapidated condition of universities in Nigeria has made gender-related issues to appear less important, and this is a bane to development of Universities. The military rule in Nigeria that lasted over thirty years dealt a big blow to the development of universities in Nigeria; this had a profoundly negative impact on university education. The culture of the Universities took after the military and became so bureaucratic (Odejide, 2015). The University autonomy was no longer guaranteed and a diminution of the humanistic socio-cultural values on which universities thrive. (Obanya, 2002). The era of military rule manifested an apparent proliferation of university education in Nigeria. Changing government policies and a deliberate policy of widening access to higher education led to a dramatic increase in the number of students. However, it drastically reduced universities funding, resulting in poor governance as well as increasing level of misappropriation of funds, job racketeering and favouritism. Despite the change over to a civilian government in May 1999, underfunding and corruption within the Universities increased.  There was no practical and visible effort to ensure that men and women have equal opportunities to perform maximally. Though laws and rules exist on equal opportunities for men and women, they have not been enforced when necessary.

Women regularly are challenged with cultural barriers which originate from the way society views the roles and responsibilities ascribed to them. Besides, their double roles as wife and mother bring about their inability to compete favourably with their male counterpart. Consequently, they progress slowly in academia, taking leaves to rear children and in the process are under pressure in their attempts to lend academic and domestic roles (Winslow, 2010).

The pace at which women advance their career alongside their male colleagues is slow. Okurame (2008) attributes this to the fact that most female academics are at the lower levels of the academic career ladder. At the same time, the under-representation and poor promotion of women in University senior management positions remain a global discussion. The situation in Nigerian Universities is very worrisome and challenging, with such practices that tend to favour the male folk having severe manifestations in institutions of higher learning (Olaogun, Adebayo & Oluyemo, 2015). Previous research has shown that in Nigeria Universities, women constitute only 13.6 per cent of the academic staff of the UniversityUniversity, compared to the global figure of 41 per cent (Boakye, 2011). According to Ogbogu (2011), women in Nigerian Universities hold less than 35% of academic posts and are mainly represented in the lower and middle level academic and administrative positions. She affirmed that their participation relative to men decreases at higher levels. In Nigeria, women are not always welcomed to assume leadership roles in the Universities, even though there are qualified women with unassuming leadership skills for such positions. In Nigeria, there are lots of customs, norms, values, traditions and cultural stereotypes serve as the benchmark for the exclusion of women in leadership positions (Porter, 2007). 


The research findings of Olaogun et al. (2015),  Nwajiuba (2011),  Adebayo and Akanle (2014) revealed that the proportion of male staff is always far much higher than the female staff. For instance, University of Nigeria Nsukka has 73% male staff to 27 % female staff, the University of Port Harcourt has 88% male staff to 22% female staff, the University of Ibadan has 82% male staff to  18 % female staff while Obafemi Awolowo University also has 82% male staff to 18% female staff; This shows the level of gender insensitivity and discrimination in universities in Nigeria. Abiodun-Oyabanji and Olayele (2011) noted with dismay that men dominate the management of Nigeria Universities. There have been only 12 female Vice-Chancellors since the first UniversityUniversity was established in 1948. 

In attaining University goals and ensure better performance, the leadership of the University should be able to attract competent workforce. The process should be devoid of any form of discrimination (Gberevbie, 2006). The staff of the University, irrespective of their gender, is expected to put in their best. The management staff are responsible for the administration of the University for enhanced performance. The management staff provides the track for enhanced performance through effective leadership and management styles to achieve the overall goal, mission and vision of the UniversityUniversity, and this is where discrimination against women is most pronounced in Nigerian Universities (Gberevbie et al. 2014).

There is a general atmosphere of discontent and dissatisfaction by both men and women in the academia due to rigid nature of performance appraisal, the nature of the performance appraisal is not gendered sensitive (Ologunde, Asaolu, & Elumilade, 2006). Nigerian public Universities have witnessed several industrial unrests over the years due to failure of the Governing Councils to review their conditions of service, making it flexible to accommodate the gender dynamics in the university system   (Tamuno, 1999). Many University staff leave because of unfavourable and rigid conditions of service, lack of adequate teaching and research facilities and relatively poor remuneration (Sanda, 1991). In Nigeria today, the economic hardship in which households are subjected to, make it imperative for men and women to go out to work (Muo, 2007). Since promotion and improved salaries are the primary motivation for work, improved salaries and promotion are hinged on the performance appraisal by the management staff of the University (Tessema & Soeters, 2006; Shahzad, Bashir & Ramay, 2008). The results of the Performance appraisal have a high motivational impact and are a significant determinant of employee performance. This approach to performance appraisal does not consider the dynamics of gender in the workplace. This gender insensitive way of measuring performance has a way of undermining the contribution of women in the pursuit of the three main functions of Universities, which incidentally also define the job description of University academics, like teaching, research and community service (B-Hert, 2006; Sharyelfu, 1999). This task makes the job in the academia highly demanding, thereby requiring an effective and highly gender sensitive performance evaluation system that will motivate both the men and women in academia to perform efficiently and effectively. (Aslam, 2011). There is, therefore, the pertinent need to analyse performance differentials among male and female administrative employees of Federal Universities in South East, Nigeria.

1.3 Objectives of the Study                                                      

The broad objective of the study was analyses of the performance differentials among male and female employees of Federal Universities in South East of Nigeria. The specific objectives were to:

i. ascertain the male and female employees’ perception of the accuracy and fairness of       their performance appraisal system of Federal Universities in South East Nigeria;

ii.assess the effects of the performance appraisal on the motivation and performance of                             

 male and female employees in Federal Universities in South East, Nigeria;

iii. examine the differences in the performance workplace related factors (HR functions,

organisational climate, task, training and development, ethical concerns) for the male    

and female employees of Federal Universities  in South East Nigeria;

iv.explore the discriminatory factors (age, childbearing, skills, educational attainment, promotion, training opportunities, unionism, responsibilities and appointment to critical positions) in terms of how male and female employees in the Federal Universities of South East should perform in their schedule and;

v.determine the level of performance differentials between male and female employees  

in the Federal Universities in South East Nigeria;

vi. identify barriers that mainly affect male and female employees in the University      system of the Federal Universities of South East Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

This study answered the following research questions;

i.        How do the male and female employees perceive the accuracy and fairness or of their performance appraisal system of Federal Universities in South East,Nigeria?

ii.     What are the effects of the performance appraisal system on the motivation and performance of Federal Universities in South East,Nigeria?

iii. What are the differences in the performance workplace related factors (HR functions, training etc) for the male and female employees of Federal Universities in South East Nigeria?

iv. What are the discriminatory factors between male and female employees in the Federal Universities in South East, Nigeria?

v.   What is the level of performance differentials between male and female employees in the         Federal Universities in South East,Nigeria?

vi.     What are the barriers that mainly affect male and female employees in the Federal Universities in South East, Nigeria?

1.5  Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated and tested;

HO1: There is no significant difference of male and female employees' perception of the accuracy and fairness of their performance appraisal system in South East Nigeria.

HO2: There are no significant effects of  performance appraisal on the motivation and performance of male and female employees of Federal Universities in South East Nigeria.

HO3: There are no significant differences in the performance workplace related factors for the male and female employees of Federal Universities in South East,Nigeria.

HO4: Training opportunities and skills abilities are not among the discriminatory factors between male and female employees in the Federal Universities in South East Nigeria.

HO5: There is no significant level of performance differentials between male and female employees in the Federal Universities in South East Nigeria.

HO6: Glass ceiling stereotype culture and Nepotism are not among the barriers that particularly affect male and female emplyees in the Federal Universities in South East Nigeria.

1.6  Significance of the Study

Though the distinction in female and male entrepreneurial activity is widely accepted and acknowledged and researched in the literature, the existence of performance differentials among male and female employees in the Nigerian Universities are not yet established, though women may have their peculiarities.

Therefore, there is need for robust research aimed at making the university environment gender-sensitive, easily adaptable, dynamic and 'fleet-footed' in order to deal with dynamic opportunities of the workplace interaction between male and female employees in the UniversityUniversity. These include encouraging 'the right kind' of gender-sensitive policies that enable all the employees in the Universities to attain their career goals.

It is expected that the result of the study would aid policy makers in the Universities in their effort to revamp the University system vis-à-vis enhanced welfare packages and improved conditions of service. Hence, the study resulted in findings which could guide policy makers in developing and implementing gender-friendly policies. It will also be of benefits to researchers and academicians.

1.7. Scope of the Study

The study was focused on Federal Universities in the South-East geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The study considered the employees of the selected Universities. The study was carried out in the 2019/2020 academic session at Michael Okpara University, Umudike (MOUAU), Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO) and the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN).The study focused primarily on the Management of Federal Universities in the South East and employees of these Universities.

1.8. Limitations of the Study

The Researcher restricted the research to only some Federal Universities in the South East Nigeria. It is expected that sometime in future, research would be carried out in other parts of the Country.


1.9. Profile of the Organization Under Study

The three Universities under study are:

a.                 The University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN)

b.                 The Michael Okpara Univtersity of Agriculture, Umudike (MOUAU) and

c.                 The Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO)

a.     The University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) was founded by the administration of the Premier of Eastern Region, Nnamdi Azikiwe in 1955 and it was formally opened  in 1960, with an enrolment of 220 students and 13 members of staff (  It is a conventional university.  UNN has since grown from its humble background to become one of the top most  universities in Nigeria with a total of seven thousand, eight hundred (7,800) employees (  The University has three campuses.  These include the main campus located in Nsukka, the Enugu Campus popularly call ‘UNEC’ and  Ituku Ozalla campus which houses the University’s teaching hospital, the faculty of Medical Sciences and the College of Medicine.  UNN currently has student population of over 36,000, 15 faculties, 102 academic departments and 211 postgraduate programmes (www,  The vision statement of UNN is to restore the dignity of man through research and innovation, to become a globally reputed first-rate school of Postgraduate studies, to create a functional, globally competitive and research focused university.  The  University aims to attract, educate, train and transform qualified persons to high level manpower that are thoroughly equipped with adequate and update knowledge and specialized skills in research and innovation.  The mission statement is to place the university of Nigeria, Nsukka in the forefront of research and development, innovative, knowledge transfer and human resources development in the global academic terrain, while promoting the core values which will ensure the restoration of the dignity of man.  The motto of UNN is to restore the dignity of man.  The following are the Principal Officers of  UNN:

i)     Visitor:  President Muhammadu  Buhari

ii)     The Chancellor:  His Imperial Majesty, Oba Adeyeye Enitan Ogwunwusi Ojaja 11, the 

          Ooni of Ife

iii)     The Prochancellor:  Chief Michael Olurunfemi

iv)     The Vice-Chancellor:  Professor Charles Arinzechukwu Igwe

v)     The Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic):  Prof. Johnson Urama

vi)     The Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Administation): Prof. Patrick Okpoko

vii)     The Registrar: Barrister Christopher Chukwudi Igwe

viii)     The Bursar:  Mr Jude Kenechukwu Ede

ix)     The University Librarian:  Prof. C.N. Ezeani.  (

b)         The Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike was one of the three specialized Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria.  They are; The University of Agriculture,  Makurdi, the University of Agriculture, Abeokute and the Federal Univerity of Agriculture, Umudike, now known as Michael Okpara  University of Agriculture, Umudike.  While the first two were established in 1988, the latter was established in 1992, under the leadership of Major General  Ibrahim Babangide.  The legal backing was given to the three Universities of Agriculture by Decree No.48 of November, 1992. (  The first set of students were admitted into the institution during 1993/94 academic year with a student population of 82.  Currently, the University has a total of four thousand, two hundred (4,200) employees, over twenty four thousand students and the number is not static, but can change at any time recruitment is made. ( Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike is located in a well known Agricultural training and research community of Umudike, 10 kilometres east of Umuahia, the Abia State capital.  MOUAU was established on the premise that national development in agriculture can be enhanced by properly integrated agricultural education.  Thus, the vision statement for the MOUAU is that the University sees itself as a vehicle for the attainment of the primary goals of the National Agricultural policy of self sufficiency in food and fibre production.  The University aims to provide knowledge through which food security will be assured. The mission statement is that MOUAU is dedicated to the training of students to become professionally competent and confident graduates.  The motto of the university therefore is “knowledge, food and security”. (   The pioneer Vice-Chancellor of MOUAU was Prof. Placid C. Njoku.  This was followed by the appointment of the University governing Council in 1997 with its pioneer Chairman/Prochancellor as his Royal Highness, Alhaji Muhammadu Liman.  His Royal Highness, Alhaji Muhammadu Wabi 111, the Emir of Jamae’are was appointed the pioneer Chancellor of the University.  The current principal officers are as follows:

i)     Visitor:  President Muhammadu Buhari

ii)     The Chancellor:  His Royal Highness Alhaji Abubakar Shehu Abubakar (111)

iii)     The Prochancellor:  Rt. Hon. Lawal M. Zayyana

iv)     The Vice-Chancellor:  Prof. M.O. Iwe

v)     The Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Administration): Prof. Elechi Asawalam

vi)     The Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic): Prof. Udo Herbert

vii)     The Registrar: Mrs Jacinta N. Ogwo-Agu

viii)     The Bursar:  Mr. Joseph Kalu

ix)     The University Librarian:  Mr. Uche Arua.  (

(C )     The Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO) was established in 1980.  It is the oldest University of Technology in Nigeria, being the first out of the three such Universities set up by the Federal Government of Nigeria who sought to establish a university of technology in each geo-political region.  It is located at Owerri West of Imo State.  FUTO began with 225 students and 60 members of staff.  It has total number of five thousand, three hundred (5,300) employees  over Twenty one thousand one hundred  (21,000) students and the number is not static.  The vision statement of FUTO is to ‘re-engineer and reposition the Federal University through recreating, nurturing and developing promising students and staff in Science, Technology and enterprise to the benefit of globalized World’’.  FUTO mission statement is ‘’to operate practical  training geared towards transforming the nation’s economy from consumer-oriented to production-oriented, with a sound technological base”  The motto is Technology for Service.  (https//

The pioneer FUTO Vice-Chancellor was Prof. U.D. Gomwalk (1980 – 1986).  The pioneer FUTO Pro-Chancellor was Dr. Chukumela Nnam Obi 11, the traditional ruler of Ogbaland in Rivers State.  The current principal Officers of FUTO are as listed hereunder:

i)     Visitor:  President Muhammadu Buhari

ii)     The Chancellor:  His Royal Highness Alhaji Muhammadu Barkindo Aliyu Musdafa

iii)     The Prochancellor:  Prof. John .O. Offem

iv)     The Vice-Chancellor:  Prof. Francis  .C. Eze

v)     The Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Administration): Prof. Julius S. Orebiyi

vi)     The Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic):  Prof. Nnenna Oti

vii)    The Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research, Development & Innovation):  Prof. Bede .C.  Anusionwu

 viii)    The Registrar: Mr. John U. Nnabuihe

ix)     The Bursar:  Mrs. Helen Onuoha

x)     The University Librarian:  Mr. Chinwe Anunobi. (


1.10. Operational Definitions of Terms

University: An Institution at the highest level of education where you can study for a degree or do research.

Employee: An individual who was hired by an employer to do specific job.He is also a staff member of the University.

Performance: This is defined as the level of activities an employee is expected to achieve in the University. This could be influenced by motivation, household and cultural factors.

Gender: This could refer to either male or female it is a way of referring to both men and women. .Gender- specific is connected with either men or women.


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