project begins with the identification of the Importance of Competence in
English Usage to the nation's Standard of Education. It therefore sets out to
examine the analysis of the English spelling error, by looking into the History
of English Spelling as well as the sources of these errors. The research work
also identified that inconsistencies in the language at times can cause these
common mistakes that we make in English. It's been observed by all writers on
the English language that the orthography or spelling of words is very
irregular; the same letters often representing different sounds and the same
sound often expressed by different letters. This project provides a theoretical
assessment of English spelling error analysis, models for spelling error and
then look into the sources of errors. The paper concluded by offering suggested
ways to avoid spelling mistakes and give examples of the common spelling errors
in their different spelling patterns.
of the Study
of the Study
of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Scope of the Study
of the Study
History of English Spelling
on English Spelling
Analysis of English Spelling
Analysis of Common Spelling Errors
of Misspelled Words According to their Spelling Pattern
for Better Spelling
is the writing of one or more words with letters and diacritics. In addition,
the term often, but not always, means an accepted standard spelling or the
process of naming the letters. Spelling attempt to transcribe the sounds of the
language into alphabetic letters. Pronunciation changes over time in all
languages and spelling reforms are irregular in most languages and rare in
some. In addition, words from other languages may be adapted to the spelling
system, non-standard spellings are often adopted after extensive common usage.
is a challenge. We all make mistakes when attempting to learn spelling. The
process of skill development that is learning something new involves making
errors. Some errors are random and the result of memory lapses, distractions,
carelessness, fatigues or inadvertent mistakes.
errors occur irregularly and are usually self-detected and self- corrected.
These are among the kinds of errors novice practitioner make.
spelling errors however are not random or careless but under error analysis.
OF THE STUDY
many people would agree that there is an observable fall in the standard of
Education in Nigeria, but nobody in his widest imagination would have believed
that University Education in Nigeria has fallen to an abysmally low level as a
World Bank study came up with a report that University Education in Nigeria has
degenerated in the past fifteen to sixteen years.
shocking news which was reported in one of the lead headlines in the Guardian,
one of the Nigeria's major daily Newspapers was published on the 19th
of February, 2001. The screaming headline read:
Bank report scores Nigerian Graduates Low".
Guardian Newspaper quoted the World Bank that "Nigerian University
graduates are poor in their usage of English Language which includes spelling
errors and they are unproductive on the job".
skills have steadily deteriorated over the past decades" (p.l). According
to the report, the poor performance of Nigerian graduates is particularly
evident in two areas; poor mastery of the English Language both in the written
and oral and then also evident in the lack of requisite technical skill. It was
ascertained in the report that the deficiencies in both vital areas Nigerian
graduates of the past fifteen years unfit for the labour market and sometimes
the larger society.
were particularly observed in oral and written communication. The study also
indicated that a serious disconnection exists between university training and
the needs of the labour market. Though, the study may have identified major
areas of the decline in the University Education but the actual problem may
have its root at the secondary school level.
the secondary school level, the potential undergraduate is given adequate
foundation in the use of English. In our secondary schools, there are lots of
English Language misspellings as well as wrong pronunciation of words. This has
really been a major concern and setbacks for the Teachers of English Language
in Nigeria Secondary Schools.
teaching of spelling in Nigeria secondary school is always a challenge, because
so many of this students find it difficult to spell correctly due to one thing
or the other, which will be the main focus of this project work. Teachers are
perplexed when students spell words correctly on weekly test and misspell the
same words as well as easier more common words.
Like reading, spelling is a written
language skills that draws upon individuals repertoire of linguistic knowledge
including phonological awareness. A mastery of written and spoken English is
highly desirable to help our fallen educational standard in this country.
Nigeria, English Language serves as an official language, a means of
communication that is rule governed. Every language has a structure different
from another. Each language of the world for example has certain regular system
of pronunciation, certain regular word order and certain regular sentence
pattern. English Language for example, permits consonant cluster both initially
and finally while other languages does not permit it.
Language is a standard language, because it is accepted in the country as a
means of interacting formally. Therefore, every students of this country is not
restricted to the standard usage of the language.
to Kachuru 1986:1,
"Competence in English and the use of this
language signify a transmutation, an added potential for material and social
gain and advantages. One sees this attitude in what the symbol stand for;
English is considered a symbol of modernization and an extra arm of success and
mobility in culturally and linguistically complex and pluralistic
Nigeria, English enjoys a wider geographical spread than any of the indigenous
language. Whatever, the language of discussion, a serious business transaction
is sealed up in writing in English. The same goes for political campaigns which
can be in the language of immediate environment, but manifestos and other
documents are produced in English. English
Language in Nigeria is a language of Education, Publication and it is a
language of Government. It is used for thinking and widening our perception of
life. It aids the cohesive political community; it serves in the expression and
development of Nigeria's personality.
is the medium of diplomacy and national relationship and it socially makes you
feel at home in any part of the world. All these show there is the need for
competence in the usage of English Language.
research work will be looking at "The Common English Spelling
Errors". English spelling error
analysis is a type of linguistic analysis that focuses on the errors learners
make. The investigation of errors can be at the same time diagnostic and
prognostic. It is diagnostic because it can tell us the learners state of
language at a given point during the learning process and prognostic because it
can tell that language learning materials need to reorient on the basis of the
learners current problems .
error during the foreign language learning has always been concerned and argued
about by linguist and foreign teachers from the ancient time. The most
distinguishing difference between the foreign language learners and the native
speakers lie in their English vocabulary size, therefore lexicon learning is
attached more and more importance.
research will be based on the analysis of errors and the patterns in spelling. Samples of spelling errors will also be
provided as well as the psychological analysis of spelling errors.
analyzing the common spelling errors in English Language, there is the need to
identify the major cause of these errors.
the course of this project, the following problems will be highlighted;
The problem of the 'ough' words.
The effect of memory in spelling
The negative effects of anxiety while
The problem of spelling patterns.
1.3 AIM OF THE STUDY
aim of this project is to provide a theoretical assessment of English spelling
error analysis, models for spelling error analysis and then to look into the
sources of errors.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
significant of the study will be drawn as we progress in the course of this
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
the course of this project work, the following questions will be addressed.
What is the effect of spelling errors in
the study of English language?
To what extent does spelling errors affect
the learning and teaching of English language?
What is the source of English language
What can be done to avoid English spelling
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
scope of this study will be confined to the common English spelling errors,
starting from the word origin.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
study can be limited by time, financial constraint and non-availability of data
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
terms used in the course of this research work are hereby defined as follows:
when a person attaches two or more words together to make them one word. The
meanings of the words interrelate in such a way that a new meaning comes out
which is very different from the meanings of the words in isolation.
the formation of a new word or inflectable stem from another word or stem. It
typically occurs by the addition of an affix. The derived word is often of a
different word class from the original. It may thus take the
inflectional affixes of the new word class.
one who argues in favor of something
A structural or behavioral characteristic peculiar to an individual or group.
or psychology of language is the study of the
psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use,
comprehend and produce language.
The invention of new words or phrases.
is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph. Diacritic is both an
adjective and a noun, whereas diacritical is only an adjective.
Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position
such as within the letter or between two letters.
ERRORS: These are the errors we make when attempting to
learn spelling. The process of skill development that is learning something new
involves making errors. These errors occur irregularly and are usually
self-detected and self-corrected.
These are words which sound the same but are spelled differently.
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