• 0 Review(s)

Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00001631

No of Pages: 31

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

Price :



Title page                                                                                                     i

Certification                                                                                                 ii

Dedication                                                                                                   iii

Acknowledgement                                                                               iv

Table of content                                                                                           v

Abstract                                                                                                       viii

CHAPTER ONE                                                                                            1

1.0     Introduction                                                                                       1

1.1     Statement of problem                                                                          3

1.2     Aim and objectives of the study                                                 5

1.3     Scope of the study                                                                     5

1.4     Justification of the study                                                                    5

CHAPTER TWO                                                                                           6

2.0     Literature review                                                                                6

2.1     Background of the study                                                            6

2.1.1  Type of tricycle                                                                                   8 Recumbent delta Tricycle                                                                  10 Recumbent Tadpole                                                                           11 Recumbent hand crank                                                           12 Recumbent Tandem                                                                          12 Special Purposes                                                                     13

2.1.17 Tricycle Rickshaw                                                                    13 Freight tricycle                                                                        14

2.2     Important of tricycle                                                                           15

2.3     Casting                                                                                              15

2.4     Sand Casting                                                                                      19

2.5     Moulding sand used                                                                            20

2.5.1 Refractoriness                                                                                     21

2.5.2  Chemical inertness                                                                             22

2.5.3 Permeability                                                                               22

2.5.4  Surface finish                                                                                     22

2.5.5 Cohesiveness                                                                                       22

2.5.6 Flow ability                                                                                23

2.5.7 Collapsibility                                                                              23

2.5.8 Availability                                                                                          23

2.6     Aluminium                                                                                         23

CHAPTER THREE                                                                              28

3.0     Experimental procedure                                                            28

3.1     Pattern making                                                                                   28

3.2     Casting of the product                                                                        28

3.3.1  Crucible Pot                                                                              29

3.3.2  Crucible Furnace                                                                      29

3.3.3  Drag and Cope                                                                                    30

3.3.4  Rammer                                                                                             30

3.3.5  Scrapper                                                                                            30

3.3.6  Charcoal                                                                                            30

3.3.7  Shovel                                                                                                30

3.4     Steps involves in the casting operation                                                31

3.4.1  Sad preparation for moulding                                                    31

3.4.2  Melting of Aluminium                                                                         32

CHAPTER FOUR                                                                                34

4.0     Experimental procedure                                                            34

4.1     Lather machine                                                                                  34

4.2     Universal testing machine                                                                  34

4.3     Results                                                                                              35

4.4     Discussion                                                                                         35

CHAPTER FIVE                                                                                           37

5.0     Conclusion and Recommendations                                             37

5.1     Conclusions                                                                                        37

5.2     Recommendation                                                                      37




A tricycle is a three wheel vehicle use in conveying goods and human from one place to another especially is the rural and farm area absorbing energy from moving system, drakes are generally applied to a rotating axle or wheels but may also take other form such as a moving fluid. Brake pedals are irregular in shape in at least the direction. Casting of the brake pedal is to reduce the weight, the sand casting is a process by which sand is use to prepare the mould. The pattern is made with a manna wood. Aluminiun was used to east the part. During the casting of the product to increase the strength of the aluminium, silicon was added to it during melting. Specimen were also produced which was latter machined and due for tensile test.




Brakes are generally applied to rotating wheels and may also take other forms such as the surface of a moving fluid. Some vehicles use a combination of braking mechanisms such as drag racing cars with both wheel brakes and a parachute or airplanes with both wheel brakes and drag flaps raised into the air during landing.

A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle wheel, axle or to prevent its motion most often accomplished by mean of friction.

The brake pedal is composed of two half pieces and facing and joined to one another by two welding lines or beads which prior to their welding or subsequent to the same have been suitably bent and to whose brake pedal body the necessary finishing operation have been applied, such as the elimination of external projections caused by the welding and those possible ones on making orifice for the passing of the articulation axis of the body and other orifices such as orifice, for other complementary passages. The joining of said half pieces and is done by facing their two corresponding edges or by partial juxtaposition of their respective ends, these half pieces being out of phase with each other.

Brake pedal bodies are frequently irregular in shape in at least one direction which has given rise to the problem that are difficult to solve, which repercussions on both the tooling, the manufacture and the final product, all of which negative affects the cost of the brake pedal body.

At present much tricycle have brake pedal that is made of steel. A brake pedal may consist of three major components namely brake pedal, rubber foot and switch pad contact. Each brake pedal component has to undergo a series of sheet forming processes before assembled together by welding process. Changing the material of a brake pedal to lighter materials such as aluminum may affect the final geometries and the manufacturing process requirement.

In aluminum alloy brake pedal production, casting has an advantage of producing in single process and suitable to substitute the original manufacturing process (combination of press forming and welding process). However, castability of brake pedal should be investigate and analyze early in design in order to form the component without formation of effects such as cracks, segregations, pores or misruns. There are three major approaches for castability analysis process simulation, parametric cost estimation and feature based castability checks. Geometric features such as under cuts, holes, sharp corners and hot spots were recognized from a solid model of the casting and analyzed by a number of dimensionless criteria function. These criteria were developed through a detailed study of design heuristics used by practicing engineer and were whiten as functions of geometric attributes of component and tool features.

An original brake pedal design was evaluated and the geometries that were critical modified and redesign to a new brake pedal design. The comparison between these two designs was carried out to prove that the modified brake pedal design is better in terms of castability.


          The evaluation of brake pedal has been impressive, and has included many technologies throughout the years. In all new developments to the braking system the number one priority is to improve auto safety and efficiency with little cost.

          Over time, the original brake pedal have welded part and further research carried out show that casting can eliminate the following from the original brake pedal;

1.            Welded joints are more brittle and therefore their fatigue strength is less than the member joined which will be eliminated when it is casted.

2.            Due to uneven heating and cooling of the member part during the welding the members may distrust resulting in additional stresses.

3.            Skilled labour uses either electricity or fuel to weld which attracts additional cost.

4.            No provision for expansion and contraction is kept in welded connection and therefore there is possibility of racks.

5.            The inspection of welding work is more difficult, complex and costly than the casting work.

In addition, the Chevrolet motor company also stressed the fact that the original brake pedal is too heavy which make the tricycle heavy and with the casting method, it will help to reduce the weight of the brake pedal and also the weight of the tricycle.

          The original brake pedal is too expensive to purchase in the market to replace the original one when its goes wear. With the help of local casting, it will make it available and cheap to purchase in the market.


1.            To reduce the weight of the brake pedal assembly.

2.            Reduction of machining requirement compared to the original steel assembly.

3.            Elimination of the welding and finishing operations required for the original steel welded assembly.

4.            To reduce the cost and the time of the production process.

5.            To reduce the risk of serious lower limb injuries the driver in a frontal collision.


          The scope of study covers only the casted brake pedal produced for experimental purpose at the polytechnic foundry workshop.


·                     To examined whether the aluminium can withstand high pressure.

·                     To make alternative for the original brake pedal without cost

·                     To improve the casting process

·                     To eliminate the welding joint

Click “DOWNLOAD NOW” below to get the complete Projects


+(234) 0814 780 1594

Buyers has the right to create dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when you experience issue with the file received. 

Dispute can only be created when you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of contents and content of the file you received. shall either provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and Conditions are applied.

Buyers are expected to confirm that the material you are paying for is available on our website and you have selected the right material, you have also gone through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.

In case of payment for a material not available on, the management of has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that is available on our website within 48 hours.

You cannot change topic after receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.

Ratings & Reviews


No Review Found.

To Review

To Comment