Teacher motivation and performances are very
essential to the continuing growth of educational systems around the world and
they rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, center competencies,
educational resources as well as strategies, in genuinely determining
educational success and performance.
This study assessed the differences and relationship between the level of
teachers’ job satisfaction, motivation and their teaching performance in Lagos State of Nigeria. A questionnaire titled
‘TEJOSAMOQ’ was used to collect data for the study. While the data for the
study was analyzed using chi-square, the survey results revealed that teacher
related sources of job satisfaction seem to have a greater impact on teaching
performance, as teachers are also dissatisfied with the educational policies
and administration, pay and fringe benefits, material rewards and advancement.
Teacher motivation is very necessary to increase performance towards teaching
Table of Contents v
of Problem 4
of Study 4
of the Study 6
of Study 7
based Approach 10
2.2 Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs 12
et al’s Two factor theory 25
2.4 Process Theories 29
2.5 Reinforcement Theories 30
of Related Literature 32
3.1 Introduction 34
of Study 34
of Study 34
and Reliability of research Instrument 35
Analysis and Discussion of Findings
of Resonance 37
of Respondent 37
4.3 Teaching experience of sampled teachers 38
Qualification of respondent 46
necessary for performance
necessary for performance
Adequacy of Hierarchy of Needs
Implication, Recommendation and suggestion for further study.
5.2 Conclusion 51
of Findings 53
for further studies
BACKGROUND TO STUDY
is the activation or energization of goal oriented behaviour. Motivation is
said to be intrinsic or extrinsic. Motivation is defined as “some kind of
internal drive which pushes someone to do things in order to achieve something”
(Haminer, 2001:51). As stated by Brown (1994:152), Motivation is a term that is
used to define the success or the failure of any complex task steers and Porter
(1991:6) deal with three matter while discussing motivation:
energizes human behaviour?
directs or channel such behaviour?
this behaviour is maintained or sustained
is thought to be responsible for “why people decide to do something, how long
they are willing to sustain the activity and how hard they are going to purse
it” (Dornyei 2001a:8). Ryan and Deci (2000a:54) state that “to be motivated
means to be moved to do something” unlike unmotivated people who have lost
impetus and inspirations to act, motivated people are energized and activated
to the end of a task. According to Steer and Porter (1991:6), motivation can be
characterized as follow:
form of Feedback.
Ingersoll, a university of Georgia Sociologist, defines teaching as “an
occupation with a very high turnover rate and the graying workforce is only a
piece of the puzzle” (Lawrence, 1999:13). Motivation is professionalism.
Indeed, human resources constitute the most valuable asset that enables schools
to provide quality education, and educational organizations depend for their
success on the quality, commitment and performance of the people who work there
(Heyness 2000:160). The most important human resources in the education
institution that enables it to achieve its core mission is the teacher (Kruger
&Van Schalkroyt 1997:12). The teacher is the full time classroom
practitioner whose main function is more instructional in approach than managerial.
According to Barmby (2006:250), teachers performs their task for three main
reasons: altruistic, intrinsic and extrinsic reasons. However, the reasons for
choosing the profession as career are predominantly related to altruistic and
intrinsic stimuli (Moran, Kilpatrick, Abbott, Dallat & Mechine 2001:17-32)
and maintain a whole hearted passion for teaching and leading requires not only
skills perse but excellence, inner strength and a strong spirit (Jackson &
motivation has to do with teachers’ attitude to work. Traey (2000:5) defines motivation
as all those inner staving conditions, described as wishes or urges, that
stimulate the interest of a person of professionalism and are enthusiastic and
totally committed to teaching. In this regard, Steyn (2002a:86) identified the
following signs of a morale that is closely related to effective motivation:
excellent performance and the consistent achievement of results, a positive
attitude regarding problem solving and a willingness to accept responsibility
and accommodate change. This will contribute to the effective realization of
the schools organizational visions, mission and goals.
in effective schools with motivated and well committed teachers, there is also
an effective culture of the teaching and learning. Teachers are motivated in
their work when they feel good. They feel good when the principals avoids
‘professional myopia’ and when teachers do not work in an uncompromising
context. In this situation teachers job-related ideas incorporate ethical,
epistemological, affective professional, economic and egocentric considerations
which shape their views on equity and justice, pedagogy and androgogy,
organizational efficiency, interpersonal relations, collegiality,
self-conception and self-image (Euacns 2001”300-302). This implies that
teachers are motivated when there is a “teacher-cantered approach to
educational leadership when the principal as an educational leader, out and
above his/her management role, endeavour to meet as many individuals needs as
possible and leads the teachers with considerable care, a positive attitude and
interest in their welfare. A principal guided by this approach develops a work
context that is underpinned by a professional culture of tolerance,
co-operation, compromise and consideration of the teachers. Sergiouanni
(1998:38) calls this approach the ‘pedagogical leadership’ approach. Today with
increasing demands placed on teachers in
contexts of increased tendencies of a breaking down of the culture of teaching
and learning on account of increasingly persuasive societies, it is difficult
to urge teachers to put their heart and soul into their work (Murthy 2003:1).
TEACHER MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
(1986:55) states that there are three theories of motivation and productivity
that teacher motivation is based on, which are as follows:
theory: It is probable for a person to struggle for work if there
is an expected reward such a bonus or a promotion is worth working.
theory: Unfair treatment for their efforts and achievement makes
enrichment theory: The more varied and challenging their work
is, the more productive teachers become.
primarily are motivated by intrinsic rewards such as respect, responsibility,
and a sense of accomplishment.
Administrators can boost morale and motivate teachers to excel by means of
participatory governance, in service education, and systematic, supportive
evaluation. Because motivation is psychologically complex, no general and
comprehensive theory exist. The beginning of such a theory however have taken
shape from the writings of influential theorist such as Abraham Maslow (1970),
McGregor Douglas (1967), Fredrick Herzberg (1964), and more recently Edward. L.
assessing teacher performance in various secondary schools, the teacher
performance need to be evaluated. The evaluation procedure and associated
instrument provide the framework for assessing teacher performance. Through the
objective and unbiased application this process, performance strength and areas
for improvement will be identified.
teacher performance to be evaluated properly, certain performance criteria have
to be put in place, this performance criteria will serve as a foundation for
evaluating teacher performance in secondary schools. This data will be
communicated to the teacher in constructive way and through interactions, a
professional growth plan will be developed to support and enhance professional
development. The principal is responsible for evaluation of teacher performance
at the school site. The principal may however delegate the responsibility to
his or her assistant. Teacher performance evaluation can be done by External
supervisors from various ministry and board of Education in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
is assumed that teachers agitation and demand are beyond the resources of the
Ministry of Education or the government. As a result, the government in Nigeria
and the Nigerian Union of Teachers (N.U.T) are in constant stand-off over the
increase in salaries, benefit and improvement in teachers working conditions.
The federal and state government have argued in Nigerian during the National
council on Education (N.C.E) meeting which held in Kano in 2002 that the
present economic realities in the country cannot sustain the demanded increase
in salaries, benefit and improvement in working condition. Specifically they
argue that teachers demands are beyond the government resources.
government position concerning the job performance of teachers as they accuse
the teachers of negligence, laziness purposeful lethargy and lack of dedication
and zeal to work. They further argue that teachers lend of efficiency and
effectiveness does not necessitate the constant request for salary increase,
incentive and better working conditions. While teachers on their part argue
that the existing salary structure, benefits and working conditions do not
satisfy their basic needs in as much as other sectors of the economy have huge
and attractive salary structure, better motivation, better the teacher
performances and enhanced working conditions. They feel Nigeria’s economy is
not properly balanced, hence their demands are being hindered which also
reduces their performance. This study therefore takes it upon itself to study
the motivational theories and secondary school teacher performance in the
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
overall purpose of the study was to explore and explain the motivational
theories, job satisfaction and teacher performance in relation to Nigerian
teachers need satisfaction for school effectiveness. The purpose of this
research is to test the various theories in the educational environment using
teacher performance and need satisfaction ratings as the dependent variables.
This study tends to investigate challenges and also proper solutions to the
challenges involved in motivating teachers for a better performance.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Which motivational theories will be
applicable to the teaching profession?
What motivates teacher performances?
Will the performance of the teachers be
related to the prompt payment of salaries, fringe benefit and other allowances?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
is no significant relationship between teacher performance and prompt payment
of salaries, fringe benefit and allowances.
There is no significant relationship between
availability of instructional materials in the schools and teacher performance.
There are no significance in the intensity of
job dissatisfaction factors of Nigeria teachers.
There is no significant difference between
motivated and unmotivated teacher performance.
There are no significant relationships
between factors that tend to motivate teachers in terms of job satisfaction and
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
relevance of this research may be seen in how far it supports or refutes prior
claims about motivation and teacher performance amongst Nigeria teachers and,
if possible, teachers around the world. Prominently, Nigerian teachers referred
to in this study are secondary school teachers. Finally, the empirical findings
from this study would help in describing or explaining the pivotal role of motivation
on the needs satisfaction of Nigerian teachers in line with other theories that
are reviewed in this work. The result of this study would also help
educationist and policy makers in emphasizing the need for the inclusion of
motivational packages for teachers so as to prepare them for better
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY
is no gain saying that Lagos State is the most populated geographical unit of
Nigeria. For the purpose, of space limitation, this research project on motivational
theories and teacher performance in secondary school would be limited to some
secondary school within the selected area of study.
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