This study investigated the attitude of
women towards family planning programme in Lagos State in Ikosi/Iheri Local
Government Area of Lagos State. The purpose of this research was to find out
the influence of family size, socio-economic status of families, marital status
and religion on the health care users and market women attitude towards family
planning. Four questions and hypotheses were stated for the study, the research
design was survey in nature. The study employed a descriptive survey research design.
An instrument titled: “Investigation of Attitude of Women towards Family
Planning Programme in Lagos State” (IAWFP) was used to collect relevant data
for the study. The total number of 90 women of child rearing age were selected
using stratified random sampling
technique. A total of 90
copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the participants with the aid
of three (3) trained research assistants. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Chi-square was
used to test the null
hypotheses stated for the study. The study revealed that family size will significantly
influence health care users’ attitude towards family planning. It also revealed
that family socio-economic status will significantly influence couples attitude
towards family planning. The study further revealed that marital status will
significantly influence couples attitude towards family planning. The study
further revealed that religion will not significantly influence couples towards
family planning. Based on the findings from the study the following conclusions
were drawn that the size of a family will go a large extent in determining the
type of life the offspring will live and the condition in which they would be
brought up, but this still has to do with the parents’ economic status.
Recommendations were made on the basis of the findings of this study which
include the following: The government should make an educational policy to
incorporate sex education and family planning in the post primary school
curriculum. The State and Local Governments should mount intensive
enlightenment campaigns on the concept of family planning and its merits. The
Government and voluntary organisations should establish family planning clinics
in urban and rural areas. They could render such services as advice to couples,
processes involved in the practice of family planning, use of contraceptives
and other methods of birth control, also mobile clinics should be provided also
to carry the campaigns to rural areas where family planning clinics do not exist.
Keywords: Investigation, Attitude, Women, Family
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: I
Background of Study 1
the Problem 4
Research Hypotheses 5
of the Study 5
of the Study 6
Definitions of key Terms 6
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
of Family Planning 8
Perspective of Family Planning 9
the Reproductive System – Male and Female 10
The Need for
Family Planning 12
Family Planning 16
Implications of Family Planning 18
The Roles of
Family Planning Service Provider 39
RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES
Research Design 41
Population of the
Sample and Sampling
Research Instrument 42
Procedure for Data
Procedure for Data
Pilot Study 43
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
Data Presentation 45
Analysis of Respondents Bio-Data 45
Test of Hypothesis 53
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of Study 59
Background of Study
Modern family planning helps women to avoid unwanted
pregnancies, illegal abortions and child bearing that will threaten their own
personal health and that of the children (Ogunbayo, 2007). Family planning
involves two concepts – contraceptive use and family planning services which is
used by couples to bring about healthy sexual relationships among them without
fears of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (Duzo &
planning is the planning of when to have and use birth techniques to implement
such plans. Other techniques commonly used include sexual education, prevention
and management of sexually transmitted diseases, pre-conception counseling,
management and infertility management (Derose, Mohammed, Helman
Moronkola & Blumenthal (2010). However,
family planning is usually used as a synonym for the use of birth control. It
is most adopted by couples who wish to limit the number of children they want
to have and control the timing of pregnancy, also known as spacing of children
(Derose et al., 2005). Family planning may encompass sterilization, as well as
pregnancy termination. It also includes raising a child with methods that
require significant amount of resources namely: time, social, financial and
environmental. Family planning measures are designed to regulate the number and
spacing of children within a family, largely to curb population growth and
ensure each family has access to limited resources (Olaitan, 2012).
The first attempt to offer family planning services
began with private groups and often aroused strong opposition. Activists, such
as Margaret Sanger in the U.S., Marie Stopes in England and Dhanvanthis Rama
Rou in India, eventually succeeded in establishing clinics for family planning
and health care. Many countries have established national policies and
encouraged the use of public family services (World Health Organization, 2010.).
of informed choice in family planning can be applied to a wide range of sexual
and reproductive health decisions. It focuses on whether to seek, to avoid
pregnancy, whether to space and time one’s childbearing, whether to use
contraception, what family methods to be used, and whether or when to continue
or switch methods. The term family planning choice could also refer to the family
decision making; the principles of informed choice focus on the individual;
however, it also influences a range of outside factors such as: social,
economic and cultural norms, gender roles, social networks, religious and local
beliefs. Limited Awareness and Knowledge as a barrier in a variety of cultures
with low resource settings, lack of awareness and knowledge has been cited as a
significant barrier in the uptake of family planning among couple. Health
Belief Model (HBM) is one theoretical framework that has been widely used to
understand why an individual chooses to participate in a health-promoting
behavior, such as family planning services. There is a need for solid awareness
with regards to individual, social and wider contextual determinants of relevant
health outcomes. Justification for proposed family planning interventions
should be grounded in knowledge about the benefit and gains of practicing it.
Harlap, (2011) described family planning as the
arrangement, spacing and initiation of children in a family based upon the
wishes and social circumstances of the parents. It could also mean the spacing
of birth so as to achieve maximum health and comfort for mother, child, and the
entire family. N.P.C. (2011) identified family planning methods to include:
total abstinence, withdrawal, methods e.g. Condom,
or Diaphragm, Spermicides, Injectables, Oral Contraceptives, Implant,
Intra-Uterine contraceptive device (IUCD), sterilization and Billings method or
natural family planning methods.
Individuals are expected to choose any of the
enumerated family planning methods depending on the availability of device,
facility for medical care, age of applicant, size and body make up.
Occasionally individuals pay for family planning care.
The implementation of family planning has been
influenced by some factors and Nigeria is not an exception. In Nigeria for
example, over 70% of her population live in the rural areas or are peasant
communities and one of the characteristics of rural people is that they have
limited access to correct information and they find it difficult to accept
changes based on ignorance and sometimes fear of the unknown hence family
planning though fully embraced by the people.
Various factors have been identified that can
influence the choice of family planning
method and these include: Literacy level, socio-economic status of family,
availability of family planning service, family size and available medical
Efforts have been made by Health professionals to
educate mothers and spouses on types and choice of family planning methods
through workshops, awareness campaign, health talks and seminars on family
planning strategies mounted across the nation. Education programmes on these
population control strategies are aimed at the prevention of post abortion
complications and promotion of safe motherhood.
Statement of the Problem
Despite various efforts made by health care
providers to provide safe family planning and population control methods in the
community, there is an observed apathy, poor patronage, non-acceptability of
the practice which has led to series of pregnancy related problems such as:
unwanted pregnancies, abortions, post abortion complications and deaths
resulting from the use of unscientific and crude family planning practices.
Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate into the attitudes of women
towards family planning programme in Lagos State
The following research questions will be formulated
and answered in this study:
1. Will family size influence attitude of health care users
towards family planning?
2. Will socio-economic status of a family influence couples
attitude towards family planning?
marital status influence the attitude of couples towards family planning?
4. Will religion influence the attitude of couples towards
The following research hypotheses were formulated
and tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance:
1. Family size will not significantly influence health care users’
attitude towards family planning.
2. Family socio-economic status will not significantly influence
couples attitude towards family planning.
3. Marital status will not significantly influence couples attitude
towards family planning.
4. Religion will not significantly influence couples towards family
Significance of the Study
findings of this study were useful to the following organizations which
of child bearing ages and spouses for the control of family size and improvement
of maternal health.
planning practitioners especially in market women, to ensure part proper
utilization of services.
study were immense benefits to health care users and medical centres.
findings may also provide an insight into how family planning programmes can be
adequately provided and managed among market women in Nigeria.
Limitation of the Study
limitations to this study include reluctance of some participants to supply, the
observed limitation during this study include the personal information, caused
unusual delay. However the participants were assured of confidentiality by
researcher hence they were able to participate in the research.
Delimitation of the Study
research was delimited to three small communities namely; Ikosi/Isheri, Ketu
and Oworoshoki in kosofe local government area in Lagos State. Thirty (30)
respondents were selected from each Local Government Area thereby making up the
sample size to be ninety (90). The respondents were market women and Health
care workers in each of the Local Government Area of Lagos State
Operational Definitions of key Terms
Attitude: This is a tendency to hold certain beliefs
about and to feel in certain ways towards persons, object or ideas.
Family: Family is a group of people held together
by birth, marriage, or adoption or by common residence or close emotional
Planning: This is the
arrangement, spacing and limitation of children in a family, depending upon the
wishes and social circumstances of the parents. Family planning is the planning
of when to have and use birth techniques to implement such plans.
Health: A state of physical, mental, social and
emotional well-being of an individual.
Educator: An individual
that facilitates the acquisition of knowledge.
Contraceptive: An agent used to prevent
is the canal lined with mucous membrane which leads from the vulva to cervix
act of becoming pregnant by the fertilization of an ovum.
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