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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00008120

No of Pages: 95

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This study presents a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of marketing communication within the road transportation industry, focusing on three prominent transportation companies: Imo Transportation Company (ITC), The Young Shall Grow, and Abia Line Transportation Company, all situated in Umuahia North. The research aims to understand the role and impact of marketing communication strategies employed by these companies on customer acquisition and retention.

The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing communication in the road transportation industry. Specific goals include assessing how marketing communications inform consumer awareness and choices, evaluating communication methods during operational disruptions, and investigating the frequency and effectiveness of advertising by the transport firms.

The study population consists of 570 individuals, including commuters and staff from the three transportation companies. A sample size of 235 was determined using Yaro Yamen’s method to ensure a representative sample.

Data were collected using structured questionnaires and analyzed through descriptive statistics and chi-square (X2) tests. Descriptive tables, charts, and percentages were used to make the raw data more comprehensible. The chi-square test was employed to determine the statistical significance of the observed discrepancies between expected and actual frequencies.

The analysis of the data revealed a significant number of travelers became aware of transport companies through marketing communications, although many also learned about them via word-of-mouth from friends and relatives. Also, few companies use formal communication channels, such as telephones and radio messages, during vehicle breakdowns. Many rely on informal methods, while some do not make any effort to communicate. It also showed that most transport firms do not engage in regular advertising. They typically advertise only when they acquire new fleets or open new branches.

Based on the findings, it was recommended that companies should engage in more intensive advertising to cover their market share and attract additional customers, reducing reliance on word-of-mouth. also, firms should install telephones and radio message devices in their offices and buses to facilitate effective communication during emergencies. Regular advertisements and updates should be provided to keep travelers informed about changes that affect them.










1.1   Background of the Study:

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Objective of the Study

1.4   Research Questions

1.5   Research Hypothesis

1.6   Significance of the Study

1.7   Scope of the Study

1.8   Limitation of the Study




2.1     History of the Selected Transport Companies

2.1.2   Young Shall Grow Transport Company

 2.1.3 Abia Line Transport Company Limited.

2.2     The Importance of Transportation in the Nigeria Economy

2.2.1   Mass Production and Economic Interdependence

2.2.2   The Theory of Comparative Cost and Importance of Transport Cost

2.2.3   The Relationship between Goods Transportation and the Need of a Developed Society

2.2.4   Economic Growth

2.3     The Objective and Need of Marketing Communication in the Transport Industry

2.4     The Element of Marketing Communication Mix

2.4.1   Advertising     Characteristics of Advertising     Functions of Advertising    Advertising Media     Magazines   Radio     Television     Out Door/Poster/Bill Board

2.4.2   Personal Selling

2.4.1   Conditions under Which Personal Selling Are Used Most

2.4.2   Functions of Personal Selling

2.4.3   Sales Promotion

2.4.4   Public Relation (PR) Publicity

2.5      Marketing Communication Process

2.6    Steps in Developing Effective Marketing Communication in Transport Industry

2.6.1   Identify the Target Audience

2.6.2   Determining the Communication

2.6.3   Designing the Message

2.6.5     Selecting The Channel For Communication

2.6.5   Establishing the Total Promotional Budget

2.6.6     Deciding The Promotion Mix

2.6.7     Measuring Promotions Results

2.6.8   Managing and Co-Coordinating the Marketing Communication Process

2.7      The impediment to the application of effective marketing communication

in the transport industry.

2.7.1   Lack of fund

2.7.3   Inadequate Competition in the Transport Industry

2.7.4     Wrong Choice Of Medium

2.8      Barriers to Effective Marketing Communication Process the effort of the federal government to build the transport sector.

2.8          Major Problem Of Transportation In Nigeria




3.1      Research Design

3.2      Area Of Study

3.3      Population Of The Study

3.4      Determination Of Sample Size

3.5      Sampling Techniques

3.6      Method Of Data Collection

3.7      Method Of Data Analysis

3.8      Validity And Reliability




4.1   Introduction

4.2   Questionnaire Analysis

4.3   Testing Of The Research Hypotheses




5.1   Summary of Research Findings

5.2  Conclusion

5.3   Recommendations








1.1      Background of the Study:

Very few people can claim to be individually responsible for producing any article. What has happened is that in this country we have become interdependent on each other. The role of transportation, which is the efficient movement of raw materials from supplier, finish goods and persons from the end of the production line to customers, Nonyelu G Nwokoye (2000)   In any society including Nigeria, is an indisputable one. This becomes the same society or between societies like Nigeria and America becomes the bed rock of existence.

It is the apparent indispensability of the transport sector in any society activities whether political, economical and social that spurred Akinrombe(1989) into categorizing transportation role into two broad terms as follows:

3          As a catalyst that enhances business activities thereby ensuring the socio economic development of the nation, and

4          As the binding element which draws together the various sectors of the economy.

Still in support of the above, Osuji (1988) maintained that “there is no aspect of the economy that is devoid of element of transportation”, this is true as identified by Adefolula that “there is always the need to collect, assemble, move or transfer and distribute”.

Although there are various means of transportation which according to Nwokoye (2000) could range from rail, road, pipeline and air. Our main concern is on the study of the road transport with special emphasis on buses. Having been acquainted with the indispensability of the transportation sector in the overall development of any economy and human society at large, it is then incumbent and called for to make an in-depth research on how to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the transport sector in other to reap its gain through marketing communication.

Marketing as defined by McCarthy  and William (2003) is the “performance of activities which seek to accomplish an organization objectives by  anticipating customers needs and directing a flow of need-satisfying goods and services from customers, marketing is also defined by  Gabay (2003) “as an organizational most influential and creative business tool. like any powerful instrument it need to be constantly revealed, preened and prepared to meet challenges” one of these activities as a tool of marketing in achieving customer satisfaction and organization goal simultaneously is marketing communication and communication as defined kotler and Armstrong (2006) is the means through which an organization or company sends its message/information from the source to the receiver (target audience). Directing a flow of need –satisfying goods and services from producer to target customer involves transportation and communication. This unfold the symbiotic relationship that exist between transportation and communication system covering the continent (Africa), there is a little hope of any economic development or growth in Africa.

Communication is, and always has been an important future of life. However, has communication has been more important than the introduction of ever faster methods of transportation, and as understanding has become more difficult because of share rate of technology growth, so the need for effective communication has increased.

In any communication process, whether conscious or unconscious the common feature is always the desire to influence by the communicator. The level of influence attached depends on a number of factors including the reliability of the sources the perception of the channel through which the message/information flows and others. Although a lot of controversies have been raised as to what should constitute the marketing communication mix. The researcher for the purpose of this work and for the easy conceptualization of the subject matter limited himself to the conventional promotional tools-comprising, advertizing, personal setting, sales promotion and public relation.

In testing the application of marketing communication in transport companies, the researcher selected and studied three companies among which include Imo transport company (ITC) Umuahia branch, Abia line  transportation company and the Young shall grow Ltd, all  in Abia state.

Inspite of the necessary role played by these two sectors (transportation and communication) in the general economic and societal development as  was seen in the cause of the study, it was still pertinent to emphasize that the sectors were not devoid of impediments or obstacles. It was therefore one of the major task to find out what these obstacles were and the efforts extended by both individual and Government to remedy the situation.

In an attempt to be objective in the research work, the researcher prepared and distributed questionnaires randomly, and supplemented that with interview conducted with management of the selected companies, and finally personal observation. The data from the field (questionnaire ). Eventually  the researcher made his suggestion on how to enhance application of effective communication in the transport sector.


1.2      Statement of the Problem

Transportation and communication are the live wire of any society as a process, marketing of transport services Is fairly founded on the assumption of two-way communication, that is consumer telling firms what they want, firms informing them of what they have done, what they have and where it could be found. Transportation is a sine-qua non to the survival and growth of any company. This is buttressed by the fact that survival of any firm is anchored on its ability to dispose or get rid of its product services. This applies to the economy at large. Great men and women that work in different sectors of the economy depend on transportation for their movement.

Denying them transportation invariably means depriving them of their duty thereby “shaping” or stagnating the economy. It is in this line that economic commission for Africa (ECA) observed that “the success of the continents’ projection industrial take off will depend on its  capacity to transport raw materials and people and distribute finish goods.

The prominent role of transportation in Nigeria and beyond notwithstanding, one will till observe that sector is highly jeopardized in this country. The honorable minister of transport noticed this urgly situation in his statement when he  said that “until now, urban mass transportation in this country (Nigeria) has  deteriorated” this state of  affair is apparent in our  metropolitan  cities were people find it difficult to reach  their various  destination owing to inadequate transport facilities. In recognition of the problems, both the government and other authorities have made and are still making effort to bring this problem to book. The efforts can be deduced from the table 1.1 below.

Table 1.1
















Agricultural and rural development





SOURCE:     Government GazzeH. “The national plan-prospects for the Nigerian Economy” Federal ministry of Transport, Lagos, 2013.

 From the above table, it is seen that presently (2013) the transport sector received 53.3 billion allocation representing some percentage of the total allocation. This huge sum sunk into this sector aside, one still find that the problem facing the sector seems unnoticed. The question therefore is to what extent can effective application of marketing communication in transport sector help erase or alleviate a considerable minimum the problems of transportation in Nigeria? Or what aiding role can marketing communication plays in the effectiveness and efficiency of transport sector.

In an attempt to providing an answer to the question Barker (2000) says that communication is central to everything in the firms. Modern marketing transportation call for more than developing a good  product, pricing attraction, and making it accessible to target customers, companies must communicate with the potential customers. Likewise, availability of sound buses without commuters’ knowledge is not enough. A little investigation by the researcher  revealed that often times some companies have sound idle buses in the garages as a result  of inability to find customers services. This problem was as a result of communication gap. To ameliorate the Lacuna, marketing communication tries to provide transport sector with information about availability of some spare parts, area of demand, public expectations, changes in commuter’s attitude and others. This function becomes more pertinent as transportation in particular and the economy in general is fastly delving into acute competition.


1.3      Objective Of The Study

          The main objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of marketing communication in transportation industry specifically on road. Therefore, stemining from the identified problems which give insight into the study, the specific objective of the study include the following:

1)    To identify the problems of transportation in the selected study area.

2)    To determine the extent to which effective marketing communication can help ameliorate the problem of making effective use of marketing communication in road transport industries.

3)    To identify the major communication system adopted by the selected companies in the study area.

4)    To determine efforts made by government and individual to reduce transportation problem in the study area.

5)    To determine the problem of adopting effective marketing communication in transport industry.

6)    To make recommendations necessary to improve the transport sectors.

1.4      Research Questions

1)    What are the  problems of transportation facing the organization.

2)    To what extent can effective application of marketing communication in transport sector help erase or alleviate to a considerable, minimum the problems of transportation in the study area?

3)     What aiding is the major communication  system adopted by the company.

4)    What efforts are been made by Government to reduce transportation problem.

5)    What are the problems affecting  effective marketing communication.

1.5      Research Hypothesis

1.    HO1: Effective marketing communication do aid the growth of the transport industry.

2.    Ho2: Competition and capital (fund) do not determine the level of application of marketing communication.

1.6      Significance Of The Study

          This is important in many ways, apart from contributing to the body of knowledge, generally it will also be available for other researcher to use or make reference to the course of undertaking a project of this kind. This project shall attempt to recognize many of the known variables in the practice of effective marketing communication on road transportation industries.

It was the need to explore the extent to which communication could help salvage a transport firm in competitive society like ours that put the researcher into this study. This research will also be significant if the recommendations of the researcher  would be adopted and implemented in order to guarantee the survival of a  transport firm in a competitive business environment.


1.7      Scope Of The Study

          Transportation can be by foot, beast of burden or mechanical device. Under the modern system, that is mechanical device, we can as well have transportation by water (ship), air (aero plane, helicopters), rail (train), or road/land (cars, bicycles, trucks, buses, or motorcycles)

          For the purpose of the research, we are limiting the study to road transport. Means of transportation under road  range, from foot, bicycles, motorcycles, cars, buses to trucks. Taking road transport in it totality is yet very broad. The researcher therefore, deemed it necessary to limit the study to buses. Since it was not easy to make  an in-depth study of  all the transport firms that operates buses, three among them for the convenience of the researcher were selected for  effective study. It was assumed that the findings from the study of these three companies could be used to infer for the state and country in general.

          Marketing communication can also take a varied shape such as company activities, packaging, colour, promotional tools etc. this study was limited to the use of four conventional promotional tool comprising advertising, sales promotional tool, personal selling and public relation as the major marketing communication in the transport industry in Nigeria.


1.8      Limitation Of The Study

          This research will not be completed without emphasizing some of the factors that acted as impediments to easy completion of this work. The most relevant being the cost, time, respondent and material factors.

          The “cost” here can be  quantified as well as unquantifiable in the sense that while  it can  be expressed in terms of  its  opportunity  cost which  is unqualifiable, it can also be  measured  in monitory terms being a student with rational pocket money, the researcher found  himself  having to eat sparingly in order to transport himself to various  source of data. In addition, because of inflation, the prices of materials like duplicating sheet and foolscap were inflated as well as the workmanship.

          Much time was consumed as the researcher travelled out to collect necessary data. This had to be combined with attending lecture, and other personal extra-curricular activities. Besides, the project had to be submitted in a stipulated time period.

Most of the respondents did not return their questionnaires on time while other did not return theirs at all. It was difficult for transport firms to give out information. Due to the recent economic hardship, it was not easy for current literatures to be published locally neither their importation easy. This limited the available data.

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