is perhaps the most important human survival skill because we all need it to
maintain contact with the world. This
research study focused on the nature, process, channels, and barriers in
communications and their effect on the effective marketing of Hi Malt. The researcher made on indepth study of the
various marketing communication tools.
The study also considered the various media through which sales messages
get to potential and prospective consumers, and the impact of there messages
against the background of competitive product brands.
To accomplish the purpose of this
research, related literature on the subject were viewed. The researcher made use of both primary and
The analysis of our data revealed
that consumers and aware of the presence of Hi Malt in the market. Semantic barriers, choice of media and appeal
to the wrong target market reduce the impact of marketing communication
activities. It was also reverted that Hi
malt as an indigenous malt drinks in Nigeria does
not enjoy an impressive marketing share of the malt drink market. Furthermore, the findings revealed that the
image of consolidated breweries plc is a major influencing factor in the sale
In the light of the researcher
findings, appropriate recommendation were made to enhance the impact of
marketing communication on the marketing of Hi-malt message in terms of
semantics and the adoption of the universal Malt battle type packaging the
researcher advocated into use because in many cares the image of the product
and the organization are interwoven, and the both plays symbolic role. However, marketing communication as used in
this study is as relates to communication between the marketing organization
and their various external publish.
Essentially, a marketing organization needs some elements of marketing
communication to inform and educate members of its target audience about the
existence of its goods & series and to persuade them to patronize it of to
develop favorable attitude and opinions towards it. Over the years in Nigeria, companies have been known
to continually desistretegies to survive in their various markets. This has become more imperative because of me
easing competition between companies whose aim is to gain better market share
and stars in business. Te situation is
not helped by the economic recession of the recent past years. As long as the economic wheel of the nation
turns, new products are introduced into the market in various shapes and sizes
to compete for a place with the already existing products, some of the products
enjoy a sizeable shares of the market, other do not. The question then arises as to how to
stimulate demand for their product.
While these may be other tractors that influences demand for a product
and hence its level of consumption, marketing communication plays a vital role
in stimulating demand. In many cases,
there have been barriers where they exists and reverse them to make for more
Consolidated Breweries plc, the
organization responsible for the manufacturing, developments distribution,
sales and marketing of Hi-malt (the drink brand of our study0 was incorporated
in 1991. This company was born through
the merging of two breweries namely Eastern Breweries and continental
Breweries. The head quarter of this
company was at Lagos
and it also has a branch plant at Awo-Omma in owner Imo state of Nigeria . they
have their depot to various states in Nigeria which Enugu is one of them. It is from there breweries that two brands of
product are produced namely Hi-malt and “33” export lager beer are manufactured
and distributed to every hook and Granny of the country. The collective success of the two brands in
eh product portfolio has been responsible for the company’s strength an
Table of contents
Background of the study
Statement of problem
Objectives of study
Statement of hypothesis
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Definition of terms.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Nature of communication
Process of communication
Channel / methods of communication
Barriers to communication
Marketing communication tools
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Sources of data
Population of the study
Sample size determination
Method of questionnaire administration
Validation of research instrument
Method of data analysis
Limitation of the study
Data presentation and analysis
Tests of hypothesis
Summary of findings, presentation and conclusion
Summary of findings
Suggestion for further study
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
is fundamental to the existence of every individual, group or
organization. It is so vital that
without it no individual, group, product or organization can succeed. To my mind communication exists as a major
indispensable human need because people need to communicate with others in
order to share information, ideas, experience and feelings.
Communication can be viewed from different perspective and
like many etymologies, has the ramification and connotations. It could be viewed from the standpoint of
person to person relationship. It could
be seen from the background of communication chains in an organization or a
business setting. And it could indeed be
viewed from the perspective of the relationship between the organization and
their external publics.
In the development of this study, all the above
perspectives of communication may come into use because in many cases the image
of the product and the organization are interwoven and they both play a
symbolic role. However, marketing
communication between the marketing organization and their various external
publics. Essentially, a marketing
organization needs some elements of marketing communication to importance
educate members of its target audience about the existence of its goods and
services and to persuade them to patronize it or to develop favourable
altitudes and opinions towards it.
Over the years in Nigeria, companies have been known
to continually design strategies to survive in their various markets. This has become more imperative because of
increasing competition between companies whose aim is to gain a better market share
and stay in business. The situation is
not helped by the economic recession of the recent past years. As long as the economic wheel of the nation
turns, new products are introduced into the market in various shapes and sizes
to compete for a plea with the already existing products. Some of the products enjoy a sizeable share
of the market, others do not.
While there may be other factors that influence demand for
a product and hence its level of consumption.
Marketing communication plays a vital role in stimulating demand. In many cases there have been inadequate
communication and in others there have become barriers to marketing
communication. There is therefore the
need to ascertain inadequacies and barriers where they exist and reverse them
to make for more effective marketing.
Consolidated breweries plc, the organization responsible
for the manufacturing, development, distribution, sales and marketing of Hi
Malt. (the malt drink brand of our study) was incorporated in 1991 as
consolidated breweries plc. The birth of
this company was the merge ring of continental breweries and eastern breweries
in 1991. this two companies were merged
because they produce the same type of product which is “33”. These companies came together in 1989 to
agreed on each other to be one. They
merge in 1991 and brewery both “33” and Hi malt. Eastern brewery produces ‘33” but when they
merge, they called their company consolidated brewery plc instead of answering
any of their former company name.
The company brewery two rarities of products namely “33”
and Hi malt. These companies have their headquarter
at Lagos and
they brewery only “33” at Lagos. They have another branch at Awo-Omamma in Imo State. They brewery both “33” and Hi malt at
Awo-Omamma. They have many depot all
over the country which include Enugu, Abakaliki, Por-Harcourt, Markurdi, Aba
etc – they develop this depot to make sure that their product are been
circulated / reach to their target market.
It is from this brewery that “33” and Hi malt are manufactured and
distributed to every nook and cranny of the country. The collective success of these two brands in
the company’s product portfolio has been responsible for the company’s strength
and towering stature. Together, these
products have facilitated the strong leadership position of consolidated
brewery Plc in the total brewed products market in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the years the malt drink market has witnessed the
introduction of a variety of malt drink products from various breweries. Many breweries had to diversify their product
range to met their overheads make profit and stay in business in a period of
The first malt drink that made in instant market success
was Maltex. This product was an imported
brand from Europe. Maltex was in fact a household name as it
dominated the market in the early and mid 1970’s. Nigerian try to introduce maltina in 1976;
then in 1991 consolidated breweries introduced their our Hi malt with the same
bottle with maltex. And other malt drink
were introduced before and after Hi malt include some are named maltina vita
malt, Guinness malt all package in maltex type bottle flooded the market. Except Guinness malt which its bottle is a
The choice of topics for this thesis is dictated by the scenario
pointed above. The major problem of this
study therefore is to determine the extent marketing communication can play a
role in the marketing communication in the effective of marketing of Hi malt
In this regard, and given the above background, I intend
to take on the following sub-problems:
to determine areas of inadequacy in communication and
to ascertain whether enhanced communication will teed to effective marketing of
To determine the reach and impact of advertising and
buyers and potential consumers.
To investigate whether buyers and potential consumers
of the product understand and share the ideas and information directed to them.
To investigate the feedback mechanism as a way of
ascertaining that management follows up marketing communication with adequate
assessment of level of understanding and acceptability of the message by the
public with a new to increasing sales.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of the study are:
To find out marketing communication modes techniques
and systems in use of the marketing of Hi malt.
To assess the effectiveness of such modes, techniques
and systems in the marketing of the product.
To explain whether barriers and inadequacies in
communication and other related factors or impede effective marketing of the
To suggest ways of addressing identified problems based
on the findings and recommendation better strategies for the effective
marketing of Hi malt.
The following forms are my research question in this
Does inadequate communication hamper consumption of Hi
To it advertising that influences purchase of Hi malt
or is it manufactures good will?
Do barriers to communication affect volume of sales of
Hi malt drink.
Does two way
communication have the potential to increase the volume of sales of Hi malt?
Will a change in the packaging of Hi malt in lane with
bottle type of other malt drink positively effect consumption or shelf display
of the product.
STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
HO:- Effective marketing communication increase customers satisfaction
with Hi malt.
HI:- Effective marketing communication does not increase customer
satisfactions with Hi malt.
HO: Advertising does not creak awareness for Hi malt in the market.
HI: Advertising creates awareness for Hi malt in the market
HO: Effective use of personal selling increases customers patronage
for Hi malt.
HI: Effective use of personal selling does not increase customer
patronage for Hi malt.
HO; Sales promotion stimulates more purchase of Hi malt on the
HI: Sales promotion does not strumlate more purchase of Hi malt in
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
admit that although more less has been said and written in the importance of
marketing communication endence still abound to show that many marketing
organizations either do not bother to imbibe and hence pratise basic
communication principles or are deficient in the proper skills and rudiments of
marketing strategy the result of this state, the respect the researcher aims of
focusing the attention of marketing communication.
Today, the emphasis of the Nigeria government is on
employment, privatization, commercialization, competition, economic growth an
development. Marketing communication has
the potentials of stimulating the economy and also improving organizational
It is hoped that the findings of this study and subsequent
recommendation will benefit not only the selected organization and performance
of its product in the market but other marketing organization and product
areas. On the whole, the study is
significance became it will be useful to scholars as new problems are likely to
be recovered in the processed of investigation.
Finally, this study will contribute to knowledge since the
investigation is essentially aimed at problem solving.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
impact of marketing communication and the role plays in effective marketing in Nigeria touches
on many marketing organization and their product, but given the limited time
and available resource, it is unrealistic to contemplate an exposition on all
the marketing organization and their product portfolio.
Consequently, the study is limited to consolidated
breweries and Hi malt drink. In effect,
the study is not on determine the extent and role f marketing communication in
the effective marketing of Hi-malt in Enugu
Conducting an empirical research is not an easy task, even
for a competent or professional researcher.
This research may not be on exception to the usual constraints and other
problems associated with similar researcher given the Nigeria
society. Cultural differences exist from
place to place.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
the art and science of transmitting, information, idea, attitudes or opinions,
facts, instructions, thoughts and images from one person to another or one
group to another.
MARKETING COMMUNICATION: Communication
undertaken to persuade others to accept ideas, concepts or things. Marketing
communication could use marketing communication could use marketing promotional
tools, namely advertising personal selling, sales promotion, publicity and
public relations. This is so because
promotion is the marketing communication process utilizing personal or
non-personal mean to remind, inform and persuade buyers or potential buyers of
the organizations products.
social system or an organized body of persons working together to achieve a
common purpose. Examples include
business or marketing organization in the context of this study means marketing
IDEA: Thought, plan, picture in the
mind, purpose opinion.
IDEATION: A technical communication fargon
for discussing idea formation. It is
therefore the thought or an idea which the sender wants to relay to the receiver.
ENCODING: The act of putting the massage
together in a certain code or symbols that can be understand by both the source
and receiver. These codes or symbols
could be words, letters, sentences or signs that represent the idea of the
source of communication. Encoding can
therefore be described as the transmission by the source of an already
conceived idea into a message appropriate for transmission to the recover.
DECODING: The translation of an encoded
message giving it meaning. This is done
by the receiver and it is important that there is a clear understanding of the
FEEDBACK: This refers to the signals sent from
the hastener / receiver to the speaker / source in order to tell the speaker
how far he is understood and possible report the acceptability or
non-acceptability, of the message. It
also indicate whether individuals, organizational or consumer behavioural
change has taken place as a result of communication.
EFFECTIVENESS: The ability to bring about the
desired or intended result or extent to which it is accomplished.
MEDIA / CHANNELS: This is the means by which a message
travels from sources to a receiver or audience and back. It is the message carrier.
PRODUCT: A product is any thing produced
by nature or by man which a buyer acquires or purchase to satisfy a need or
want. It has to be priced and have
PRODUCT PORIFOLIO: Product range, units or group
handled by an organization.
EXTERNAL PUBLICS: Individuals or organization an individuals
or an organization communicates with.
They includes consumer, communicates, neighbours, dealers, distributors,
suppliers, shareholders, government agencies, educators and other publics.
DEMAND: The amount or quantity of product or goods
that the consumers with, to purchase at a particular price at a specific time.
REFERENCE: Marketing choice or choosing a
particular brand from different brands of the same product category or
preferring a particular brand in a wide variety of other products of the same
CONSUMERS PERCEPTION: The way Hi malt advertisements are
seem be consumers.
TARGET MARKET: Target market is that area where the
company’s product is affectively patronized or the area the company’s product
is affectively patronized or the area the company expects and plans effectively
REPRESENTATNES: These are able
bodied men employed and in some cases trained by a company for the sales of its
products through demonstration and personal conviction of customer about the
FREE SAMPLES: Free samples are a quantity of a
company’s product that are used or given to prospective customers free when the
products is new and unknown in the market.
It is done to create product awareness.
BUDGET: A budget is a financial / quantitative
statement prepared and approved prior to a specific period of operation of an
enterprise. It is normally used as guide for production, expenditure and sales.
PUBLICITY: Activities or activity of securing
non-paid significant editorial space, news, stories and features in all media
read, reviewed or head by a company’s customers or prospects for the specific
purpose of gaining credibility and attention an ultimately meeting the sales
goals of the organization.
SALES PROMOTION: These are a number of techniques that
marketer use to stimulate immediate sales.
Thee technique or activities includes contests, trade shows, sampling,
and premiums, sales promotion is designed to supplement and co-ordinate person
selling and advertising efforts.
PERSONAL SELLING: This is person to person communication
meant to assist a sales person personate a prospect to bring a product or to
act favourably upon an idea or a cause.
ADVERTISEMENT: A communication is the media, paid for
by an identifiable sponsor and directed at a target audience with the aim of
importing information about a product, services, idea or opinion.
PUBLIC RELATIONS: Is a philosophy of management whose aim and
objectives is the establishment of understanding report and goodwill between an
organization and its public, public relation uses a two way communication
system between the organization and its publics to achieve its social