The study examines the influence of Job
motivation on the Psychological well being of employees amongst school teachers
of some selected schools and staff of Daar communication Alagbado Lagos. The
knowledge derived from this study was used to test the three hypotheses.
The findings of the test led to the
rejection of the hypothesis that job motivation would influence the
psychological well being of employees, no direct relationship was found between
motivation and psychological well being. The result of the 2nd
hypothesis also rejected the hypothesis that there would be a positive
correlation in the participants scores on motivation and psychological well
being. It rather revealed a negative correlation between motivation and
psychological well being. And finally the 3rd hypothesis also had no
significant difference between male and female participants and also no
significant difference between low & high motivation in well being.
And based on these conclusion
appropriate recommendations were made to both employers and employees.
Page Title i
1.0 Introduction 1
to the Study 4
of Problem 7
of Study 8
of Study 9
of Study 9
Definition of Variables 10
and Job Performance 12
Framework of Study Hackman and Oldham Job Characteristics
Theory (JCT) 29
2.2 Sample and
Sampling Procedures 36
2.4 Instruments 37
Hypothesis testing 41
Descriptive table 44
of Findings 46
Limitations of Research 50
Implications of findings 51
A milestone in success of an
organization is to fulfill the continuous changing needs of organization and
employees; heavy responsibility falls on top management to develop strong
relationship between them. Organizations expect employees to follow the rules
and regulations, work according to the standards set for them; the employees
expect good working conditions fair pay, fair treatment, secure career, power
and involvement in decisions. These expectations of both parties vary from
organization to organization. For organizations to address these expectations,
an understanding of employee’s motivation is required (Beer, Spector, Lawrence,
Mills & Watson 1984).
Deeprose (1994) examined the effective
reward system improve employee motivation and increases employee productivity
which contribute to better enhanced organizational performance. Baron (1983)
argues that there is very close relationship between motivation and job
performance. Both performance and motivation are directly proportional to each
other. The premeditated success For an organization lies in focusing attention
at all levels specifically on important business actives which can be achieved
through effective performance management Nel, Gerber. Van Schults, Sono &
Werner (2001) Robert, (2005) took into account the work of Baron, (1983) in
which he mentioned that not only motivation can influence performance, but
performance can also influence motivation, if followed by rewards.
Organizations need to unleash the
talents and motivations of all their employees if they are to achieve peak performance
(Burke & Cooper, 2007, Katzenbach, 2000, Ulrich, 1997). There is
considerable evidence, however, that many organizations are falling short
(Burke & Cooper 2008; Sirota, Mischkind & Melzer, 2005). Recent efforts
to improve organizational performance have begun to emphasize positive
organizational behavior concepts and positive emotions (Cameron, Dutton &
Quinn, 2003; Leiter & Bakker, 2009; MayGilson & Harter 2004; Bakker
& Schaufeli; 2008. This includes concepts such as optimism and engagement,
Stress has become one of the most
serious health issues of the twentieth century, a problem not just for
individuals in terms of physical and mental disability, but for employers and government
who have started to asses the financial damage. Matteson & Ivancevich
(1987) estimates that stress causes half of absenteeism, 40% of turnover, and
5% of total lost productivity due to preventable occupational stress ($300
billion for the US economy annually). Occupational stress has serious
consequences for both individual employees and organizations.
The problem of occupational stress is
particularly relevant for countries undergoing enormous economic and economic
change. Nigeria is one of such society, with transformation of the industrial
structure from labor-intensive to technology-intensive, as well as rapid
westernization in both work and life styles. In this context, it is important
for psychologists, occupational physicians, managerial executives and even government
policy-makers to understand the problem of occupations stress, and to produce
practical guidelines and interventions to enhance employee, well-being.
Usually, work motivations can be
revealed by investigating the question “what do people want from their jobs”? Herzberg,
Mausner & Snyderman (1959) found two general types of work motivations:
intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and further lined these two to job
satisfaction and dissatisfaction, respectively, using this dichotomy of work
motivations, we may well argue that people who have strongly intrinsic
motivations such as self-fulfillment and self growth will be more seriously
affected by lack of control in their jobs. Similarly, people who have strong
extrinsic work motivations such as pay and work conditions will care more about
demands in their jobs. Hence it is possible that work motivations may alter the
job stressor-strain relationship, and not as a moderator.
There is also increasing evidence that
social support, both within the work settings, that is, help from colleagues or
supervisors and outside the work settings, that is, help from friends and
families can buffer the impact of occupational stress (House, 1981; Cummings,
1.2 Background to the Study
Within the behavior sciences in general
and occupational health psychology in particular, there has been a specific
focus on the importance of well being both physical and mental health, in
affecting success in many life situations, including the work place. Indeed
Seligman Steen, Park & Peterson (2005) challenged the field by asking “can
psychologist take what they have learned about the science and practice of
treating mental illnesses and use it to create a practice of making people
Psychological well being has been found
to be related to both work and personal life outcomes. In other words, although
co-relational, the inference from this research would prove that one’s
psychological well being levels to desired outcomes at work and in life.
Worrall & Cooper (2006) recently
reported that a low level of well-being at work is estimated to cost about
5-10% of gross National Product per annum, yet quality of working life as a
theoretical construct remains relatively unexplored and unexplained within the
organizational psychology research literature.
A recent publication of National
Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2007) emphasizes the core role of
assessment and understanding of the way working environments pose risks for
psychological well-being through lack of control and excessive demand the
emphasis placed by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence on assessment
and monitoring well being springs from the fact that these processes are the key
first step in identifying views for improving quality of working life and
addressing risks at work.
Why do people work hard and does their
motivation for working long hours in terms of their satisfaction and well
being? Several streams of research based on these questions. First, a growing
body of research on workaholism has shown that different types of workaholics
exist (Scott, Moore & Miceli. 1997; Spence & Robbins 1992) and that
some types of seem to be work satisfied and psychologically health while other
types are dissatisfied with their jobs and careers, with their family relationships
and in psychological distress (Buelens & Poelmans, 2004; Burke, 2007;
Machlowitz, 1980; Kanni, Waskabayash: & Fling, 1996; Robinson, 1998; Spence
& Robbins, 1992B).
Second, extensive research on sources of
motivation (e.g., the effects of intrinsic versus extrinsic goals) and
different processes or motivations for realizing these goals (e.g. internal
versus external motivations) – the “what” and “why” of goal pursuits – has
shown that individuals motivated by extrinsic goals and external sources of
motivation report lower levels of satisfaction and psychological health (Deci
& Ryan, 1985; 2000, Deci, Koestner & Ryan, 1999, Ryan & Deci 2000).
Burke (2007) has shown that different types of workaholics are motivated by
different beliefs and fears about people and their larger social and work
1.3 Statement of Problem
What motivated the researcher to
carryout this study is because more recently an interest has arisen into the
broader concepts of job motivation stress and subjective well-being of
employees in the work place. Job motivation has been more widely studied, while
quality of working life and also the psychological well being of employees, remains
relatively unexplored and unexplained. Although some authors have emphasized
the workplace respects of quality of working life, others have identified the
relevance of personality factors, psychological well being, and broader
concepts of happiness and life satisfaction.
Another reason for this study is to see
if there is a relationship between motivating factors in the workplace and the
extent to which an individual or employee feels good or content in themselves,
in a way which may be independent of their work situation. It is suggested that
general well being of individuals or employee’s both influences, and is
influenced by work. Mental health problems, predominantly depression and
anxiety disorders are common, and may have a major impact on the general well
being of the employees in an organization.
When employees are motivated at work, it
make the employees feel they can control their work through the freedom of expressing
their opinions and also the opportunity given them to be involved in decisions making
at work. Another aim for the study was to understand the relationship between
stressful experiences, behavior and health and how motivation comes to play in
1.4 Objectives of Study
The main objective of the study is investigating
the relationship between employee motivation and their psychological well being.
Verifying if there is evidence for relationships
between some job stressors or well being and organizational citizenship
Examining any positive and high workplace
performance which will yield high productivity for an organization and even
spread into the economy of a state or country as a whole. This can be achieved
when employees are well motivated and this motivation in turn affects or
influences the psychological well being of the employee in the workplace. The study
may provide a good enough basis for effective intervention. Lastly the study
may bring more light on how job motivation influences the quality of work performance
which in turn affects quality of life.
1.5 Significance of Study
The significance of the study is to
determine the importance of motivation in the workplace and how this in turn
will contribute to the progress of the organization through a high level of
The findings will also contribute to
knowledge and enlightenment on the important of motivating employees which
would in turn flourish high performance culture in organizations.
The study upon completion will help make
clear the relationship between job motivation and psychological well being of
employees in the workplace and in the home front.
1.6 Scope of Study
The area of coverage of the study is
Alagbado area of Lagos State. The study will take place among the employees of
organizations in both public and private schools and among staff of Daar
1.7 Operational Definition of Variables
according to this study, is the stimulation that causes the creation of aroused,
sustained and directed behavior. This behavior will in turn lead individuals to
work and perform better.
In this study, is general health and happiness: emotional and physical. Psychological
well being is multi-faceted.
Performance: The accomplishment of a given task measured
against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed.
A place such as an office or factory where people are employed.
1.8 Literature Review
In the modern world of globalization the
work place realities of (yesterday) past organizations no longer exists. It is
a matter of past and needs to be revised carefully. It is important for the
organizations to meet and introduce new motivational needs of employees since
the change have been observed on the work place realities in today’s organizations
(Roberts, 2003). Beer et al, (1984) strongly asserts in their research of
changing work environment the reality that organizations today have totally
changed, therefore it is more important for the top management to carry out new
methodologies of developing strong and durable relationships between the
organization and employees for meeting the organizational goals and fulfilling
the continually changing needs of both parties. A complete and thorough
understanding of employee motivation is required for organizations to address
and accomplish these expectations (Beer et al, 1984). It is clear from the
above that strong relationship among organizations and employees is an
instrument for success in fulfilling the needs of changing work environment for
both parties. To make strong bond with employees the role of top management is
crucial in this respect.
Carnige (1985) focused the human aspect
regarding management, strongly believes people who craft a formulation for an
organizations success or failure are the chief executive-responsible for
motivating his company employees in respect of their satisfaction and assurance
of organizational success. Carnige mainly insists on human capital that plays
pivotal role in an organizational effectiveness compared to financial capital.
People rather than finance are observed in modern times as the primary source
of a company competitive advantage.
Organizations require a number of
resources, strategies and techniques in order to succeed. From capital, to a
business site and to employees, all of these are essential for a business to
work while these components are significant, values, particularly motivation is
recognized as vital business element, especially in enabling organization
transformation and enhancement. Motivation permits the business owners and
employees to be resourceful, responsible and productive in performing daily
business tasks which in turn helps in uniting the business with it consumers by
means of motivating the employees, managers are able to encourage them to work
towards a common goal. This business principles also helps the employee to
become more productive, enabling enhancement and transformation to place.
1.9 Motivation and Job Performance
According to Butkus & Green (1999),
motivation is derived from the word “motivate”, means to move, push or persuade
to vet for satisfying a need. ‘Baron (1983) defined motivation in his own
right. He says that “motivation is a set of processes concerned with a kid of
force that energizes behavior and directs it towards achieving some specific
goals. According to Creech (1995) motivation is typically defined by
psychologists as a stimulation that causes the creation of aroused sustained
and directed behavior. This behavior in turn leads individuals to work and
perform towards goal achievement Kreitner (1995) has defined motivation as the
psychological prices that results to a directional and purposeful behavior.
Motivation is also defined as the tendency to behave in an appropriate manner
to attain certain needs (Buford, Bedeian & Indner 1995).
Many writers have expressed motivation
is a goal directed behavior. This objective nature of motivation is also
suggested by Kreitner & Kinicki (2001, P. 162) put forward that motivation
represents “those psychological processes that cause the stimulation,
persistence, of voluntary actions that are goal directed.
In another term, a motivated person has
the awareness of specific goals must be achieved in specific ways, therefore
he/she directs its efforts to achieve such goals (Nel et al. 2001) It means
that a motivated person is best fit for the goals that he/she wants to achieve
as he/she is fully aware of its assumptions. Therefore if the role of managers
are assumed to successfully guide employees towards the organizational agendas
of achieving its objectives, then it is very important for them to educate and
understand those psychological processes and undertakings that root cause the
stimulation, direction of destination, determination and persistence of
voluntary actions (Roberts,2005).
On reaching the understanding and
believing that people (employees) are naturally motivated, an organization
simply provide the environment for their motivation to be enhanced and improved
(Baron,1983). It means that an organization is the better environment and
working atmosphere provider, it only needs to believe that the people have the
The achievements of individuals and
organizational goals are independent process linked by employee-work
motivation. Individuals motivate themselves to satisfy their personal goals,
therefore they invest and direct their efforts for the achievements of
organizational objectives to meet with their personal goals also. It means that
organizational goals are directly proportion to the personal goals of
Robert (2005) reported that the managers
job, is to ensure the work done through employees is possible, if the employees
are self motivated towards work rather directed. The managers involvement is
not so much important in the motivation of employees. The employees should
motivate themselves to work hard. The major issue in all service organizations
is the motivation of employees whether, they are skilled or unskilled or
professionals. Employee motivation is also a major issue for the commercial
banks. It is a today’s challenge for the management in this competitive world
to motivate employees to offer efficient and good services that customers
expect for. The employee’s motivation, their enthusiastic and energetic
behavior towards task fulfillment play key role in successes of an organization
to benefit (Cheng, 1995).
According to Petcharak (2002), one of
the functions of human resource manager is related to ensure employee’s work
place motivation. The human resource manager’s function should be to assist the
general manager in keeping the employees satisfied with their jobs. Another
goal in organization is the goal of the service manager is to develop motivated
employee’s and encourage their morale regarding their respective works. The
employee work morale, such as supervisors, peers, organization and work
environment can be defined in a sense that the employee live the feeling and be
conscious about all aspects of the job. The performance is poor if the employee
is not satisfied and happy. Work place dissatisfaction often leads organization
and its employee’s poor performance.
According to research conducted by
mostly, Megginsoin & Pietri in 2001, there are three levels of employee’s
- The direction of an employee’s behavior. It
relates to those behaviors which the individuals choose to perform.
- The level of effort. It refers to how hard the
individual is willing to work on the behavior.
- The level of persistence. It refers to the
individuals willingness to behave despites obstacles.
& Ninemeier (1989) conducted research and investigated what employees may
seek from the environment. Their discussion reviews some of employee-related
concerns that can be found in the venue of strategies to employee’s motivation.
Employees are individuals that come from
different backgrounds they have different experiences and their different
family classes are all the factors in which their needs be located.
The primary interest of employees is to satisfy
their personal needs, ambitions, desires and goals.
An employee wants to satisfy its basic needs,
linked to survival and security concerns and a desire to belong to generate
positive feelings from within and from others and to be self fulfilled.
Most employees wants (a) fair and consistent
company policies in matters affection them (b) management they can respect and
trust.(c) adequate working relationships with managers and co-workers. (d) Acceptable
salaries and working environment. (e) Appropriate job security assurance (f)
favorable job status
The other important factors that can fulfill and
motivate employees are challenging work, work that yields a sense of personal
accomplishment, expression of appreciation for good performance, increased responsibility
and the chance to grow in the job, the feeling of importance and making a
contribution to the organization and participation in job-related matters that
affect the employees.
research conducted by Dr. Koshifurrehman et al (2007) in Pakistan measuring the
effect of “Human Resource Strategies”
like pay, promotion and training on job satisfaction. Their study was focused
on work force of service based companies in Pakistan. They concluded from their
research that pay, promotion and training had positive and significant impact
on job satisfaction. They urged and suggested that employees in Pakistan give
more importance to pay and promotion than training.
significant differences were found among male and female employees’ job
satisfaction level in Pakistani based service organization. According to their
reports service based industry is going under tremendous changes for the last
few years in Pakistan. Due to these changes not only their transactions are
increasing but their range of services is also expanding. As a result different
sectors of service industry such as banks, educational institutes and
telecommunication firms are experiencing swift turnover (Rehman, Malik &
Taj Rizwan 2007).
beings are motivated by requirements that fulfill their needs. This depends on
many factors, and vary by the individual requirements and necessary situation.
Beside basic needs that range from food, clothing, medicine and shelters, there
is workplace that needs to be extended for acceptance and self-esteem. The
researcher has indicated that each individual experience these factors in
different level. Therefore, managers should figure out the basic theories of
motivation, how to better (Cheng 1995).
for many years there has been much research into job satisfaction, and more
recently, an interest has arisen into the broader concepts of stress and
subjective well-being, the precise nature of the relationship between these
concepts has still been little explored. Stress at work is often considered in
isolation wherein it is assessed on the basis that attention to an individual’s
stress management skills or sources of stress will prove to provide a good
enough basis for effective intervention. Alternatively, job motivation may be
assessed, so that action can be taken which will enhance an individual’s
performance. Somewhere in all this, there is often an awareness of the greater
context. Whereupon the home-work context is considered, for example, and other
factors such as an individuals personal characteristics and broader economic or
cultural climate, might be seen as relevant. In this context, subjective
well-being is seen as drawing upon both work and non-work aspects of life.
Efraty, Siegal, & Lee (2001) suggested that the key factors in quality of
working life are
Need satisfaction based on job requirement
Need satisfaction based on work environment
Need satisfaction based on supervisory behavior
Need satisfaction based on ancillary programmes
They defined quality of working life as
satisfaction of these key needs through resources, activities and outcomes
stemming from participation in the workplace. Needs as defined by psychologist,
Abraham Maslow, were seen as relevant in understanding this model, covering
health and safety, economic and family, social, esteem actualization, knowledge
and aesthetics, although the relevance of non-work aspects is play down as
attention is focused on quality of work like rather than the broader concept of
quality of life.
The distinction made between job
satisfaction and dissatisfaction in quality of working life reflects the
influence of job satisfaction theories. Herzberg et al., (1959) used “Hygiene
factors” and “motivator factors” to distinguish between the separate cause of
job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. It has been suggested that motivator factors
are intrinsic to the job, that is job content, the work itself, responsibility
and achievement. The hygiene factors or dissatisfaction – avoidance factors
include aspects of the job environment such as interpersonal relationships, slavery,
working conditions and security of these latter the most common cause of job
dissatisfaction can be company policy and administration, whilst achievement
can be the greatest source of extreme satisfaction.
It has been generally agreed however
that quality of working life is conceptually similar to well-being of employees
but differs from job satisfaction which solely represents the workplace domain
Quality of working life is not a unitary
concept, but has been seen as incorporating a hierarchy of perspectives that
not only include work based factors such as job satisfaction, satisfaction with
pay and relationships with work colleagues, but also factors that broadly
reflect life satisfaction and general feelings of well being (Danna &
Griffin, 1999). More recently, work related stress and the relationship between
work and non-work life domains (Loscocco & Roschelle, 1991) have also
identified as factors that should conceptually be included in quality of