aim of this study is to assess the role of The effects of extracurricular
activities on the performance of J.S.S students in basic science.
The study was divided into five parts viz
introductory chapter, the literature review, research methodology, analysis of
data and the concluding chapter.
Primary and secondary data were used, with two
groups of respondents sample for the study. A sample size of two hundred and
fifty (250) was chosen for each groups of respondents.
T-test score was used for the respondents bio-data,
and some aspects of the research questions. The average mean ( x ) and Standard
Deviation (SD) was used to test the relationship between the views of the two
classes of respondents.
The common problem
for many students involved in extracurricular activities is that they take on
too much on the extracurricular activities than the academic aspects. Students
should make a schedule that balances school, after-school activities, and home
life. Also, activities should be fun rather than stressful for students. School
grade should not suffer because of time spent at work or in after-school
activities. For example, a student
soccer player could not finish or even start his or her homework due to
exhaustion after a long game or strenuous activity. Extracurricular activities
may also cause lack of time for academic concerns or may lead to unsatisfactory
performance to studies. Marsh and Klietman (2002) discovered that as the total
of participation increased, the benefits to academic success began to diminish
to the point where negative effects emerged.
face many challenges to become educated and contributing members of society.
challenges can include poverty, neighborhood violence and peers who engage in anti-social
activities. How can these students become resilient and change their educational
and civic outlook for the better? One commonly held solution is that extracurricular
activities may confer many benefits besides adorning high school resumes. A recent longitudinal study with high school student participants
indicates that involvement in extracurricular activities predicts academic and
psychological adjustment, educational status and to a limited extent civic
engagement (Fredricks & Eccles, 2006).
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Hypothesis Questions
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope and limitation of the Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
3.2 Area of
and Sampling Techniques
for Data Collection
of the instrument
of Data collection
and Interpretation of Data
and interpretation of hypothesis
Conclusion and Recommendation
1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE
When students learn in laboratories, they can learn hard and
abstract subjects easily and permanently, (Ayas, Çepni & Akdeniz, 1994).
When students comprehend the relationships in scientific study methods and when
they observe things, do experiments and research things, it enables them to
determine an appropriate method to gain an attitude towards real life problems
and to solve them efficiently. Carrying out more laboratory activities enables
students to understand the nature of physics and to form a connection between
concepts and real life situations (Olagunju, 1992). Laboratory application must
be considered more seriously to make learning in physics lessons reach higher
degrees than just knowledge and comprehension level. This situation provides
students with cognitive, affective and psychomotor developments and besides it
makes students gain positive attitudes towards physics.
An attitude towards physics laboratory is related to several
variables. Motivation for classroom engagement is one of these variables. As a
concept, motivation and amotivation has a significant role in teaching and
learning. In the past, students used to be considered as machines whose
necessities were supplied. But today, according to motivational perspective,
students are considered as individuals who are able to reach a decision by
assessing possibilities and consequences that can transfer their aims into life
and form meaning. The importance of students’ attendance to school and
classrooms was noticed when teachers observed that pupils were bored with
academic and social activities at school and they didn’t have any motivation
(Maehr & Midgley, 1991).
If students take active part in classroom and school activities it
means that they take part in the activities that are provided by school.
Researchers consider it as a Meta structure by combining their different
findings about topics such as motivation for classroom engagement, reference
and school atmosphere. In spite of it there is not a common definition or
consistency about concepts and terms in studies which are carried out on this
topic. Engagement means that the students participation to the activities which
are offered by the school (Okebukola, 1996).
In literature, engagement is discussed with two or three factors.
First factor is the behavioural dimension which includes characteristics such
as exhibiting positive behaviors and efforts. Another factor is the emotional
dimension which includes the positive attitudes on the subjects such as
interest, identification, and learning. This study will be carried out with respect
to motivation to classroom engagement. Motivation to classroom engagement means
that students want to engage the classroom activities if they have motivation.
On the other hand amotivation to classroom engagement means that students do
not want to engage the classroom activities if they have amotivation.
The most significant problem that teachers confront in physics
lessons is that abstract or concrete subjects cannot be comprehended by pupils
correctly or efficiently. A lot of techniques and methods are used to handle
this situation. We can apply any technique or method but students’ attitudes
toward the lesson and their knowledge that they gain previously are mainly
effective in learning by doing and their knowledge that they gain previously
are mainly effective in learning. Learning by doing and forming knowledge has
been outstanding among these methods recently (Azizoglu, 2005). This method
involves students being active in learning process and doing instead of being
passive. If we want students to gain permanent knowledge and form a connection
between knowledge and real life, it is possible by making students take an
active part in experimental laboratory based activities.
The studies which are done about the classroom engagement reveal
that when the students are open to learning, they show more competence in terms
of academic and they use more strategies to learn (Pintrich & Maehr, 2004).
Also, when they participate in the lesson, they are connected to the subject
and they are undaunted by the difficulties and they are happy about the studies
they did. As a result, students’ classroom engagements affect students’ needs
and meanwhile the success of learning (Bomia et al., 1997). If the students do
not have motivation to participate in the lesson, in this case many of them get
bored, they cannot focus their attention on the subject, and they cannot
establish any connection with the studies done in the school and real life. As
a result of the students’ being bored and reduction of their lesson attention,
we see that the students dropout. One
of the most important factors which affect students’ academic success is their
attitudes toward school, lessons and academic success.
Pintrich and Maehr (2004) classifies students in three groups such
as the ones who avoid failure, the ones who would like to satisfy their
curiosity and the ones who want to get high marks. He remarks that students in
classrooms, their motivation degrees and strategies are different. When
students have positive attitudes, they show positive behaviors and they fulfill
their academic necessities. In consideration of this knowledge and the
findings, in this study it was aimed to examine the relationships between
attitudes towards physics laboratories, motivation and amotivation for classroom
engagement in senior secondary schools.
In this study, it is aimed to examine the relationships between
attitudes toward physics laboratory and motivation-amotivation for classroom
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE
issue of students’ underachievement in physics is a major problem that befalls
the educational sector in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.
students record massive failure in physics especially in the West African
Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) and the National
Examination Council (NECO) Examination.
subject of motivation is important especially in student’s learning and in
their academically successful life. Studies, which have been carried out,
reveal that more motivated individuals learn a subject better. Moreover, it is
concluded that individuals who have high-level motivation provide positive
contributions to the school and class.
the fact that learners attitudes if taken into consideration can improve the
level of academic achievement of students in senior secondary school physics.
This study is aimed at identifying the relationship that exists between the
attitudes toward physics laboratories, motivation and amotivation for the
classroom engagement since no research work has extensively concentrated on
study also seeks to determine the extent to which learners approach to
laboratory and classroom activities can modify their academic performance in
physics. Hence, this justifies the relevance of the study.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between attitudes toward
physics laboratories, motivation and amotivation for the classroom engagement
in senior secondary schools.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
specific terms, the objectives of this study are to:
Determine the various
motivation-amotivation levels exhibited by students in physics classrooms.
Determine the correlation between
learners’ classroom engagement and their academic achievement.
Determine whether laboratory work can
stimulate motivation-amotivation for the classroom engagement.
Determine the factors necessary to promote
the learners’ classroom engagement.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
accordance with the purpose of the study, the following research questions will
Does learners’ readiness have any effect
on their academic achievement in physics?
Is there any relationship between the
attitudes of students and classroom engagement?
To what extent do students get motivated
or amotivated for laboratory experiments?
Would learners’ attitude improve the rate
of assimilation of physics?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
most significant problem that teachers face in physics lessons is that,
abstract or concrete subjects cannot be comprehended by pupils correctly or
gain permanent knowledge only when they do laboratory work.
student’s classroom engagements affect his needs and the success of learning.
is no significant relationship between attitudes of students and their
achievements in physics.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
researchers will try to find out the extent to which attitudes toward physics
laboratories, motivation and amotivation affect the performance of students in
some selected senior secondary schools in Somolu Local Government Area of Lagos
The knowledge gained or knowledge that would
be acquired from the study may help the teachers and educational administrators
determine the reason why some schools find it difficult to effectively achieve
adequate level of performance in physics as a subject. It will serve as a way
of increasing the rate of students’ permanent retention of knowledge.
study will also help to discover how motivation can be stimulated in the
learners thereby leading to maximum classroom engagement and greater
achievement in physics. It will further help teachers to realize the type of
behaviour they can exhibit in order to enhance the learners’ characteristics
toward the learning of physics and they will also be able to realize what
teaching method each student needs for the successful learning of physics.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
the purpose of this study, the investigation will be limited to senior
secondary school two (SSII) physics students in selected secondary schools in
Somolu Local Government Area of Lagos State. As a result of the numerous
schools in this local government, ten schools would be selected which includes
both single and mixed schools.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
A way of thinking or acting
Distinguished features of performance. It may be slow or fast learners,
individual differences in rate of aptitude, background, home environment,
provision of textbooks and readiness to learn.
that makes a person choose to act in a particular way; a reason.
who aspires to gain knowledge through learning.
inspiration to participate in social situations and activities, with lapses in apathy
caused by an external event, situation, substance (or lack of), relationship,
or other cause.