TABLE OF CONTENT
AIM AND OBJECTIVE
TERMINOLOGY OF MEMBERS
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
LIMIT STATE DESIGN BS 8110
Residential Building: This is defined as the building which
sleeping accommodation is provided for normal residential purposes. It is
provided with or without cooking or dining or both facilities. Residential
building includes one or two story or multi-family dwelling, lodging or rooming
houses, dormitories, and apartment houses.
residential building can be owned by an individual or co-operative association.
Each resident or resident household has membership in the co-operative
association. In non-equality co-operative members have occupancy right to a
specific suite within the housing co-operative as outlined in their “occupancy
agreement” or “proprietary lease” which is essentially a lease. In ownership
co-operatives occupancy rights are transferred to the purchaser by way of the
major function of the residential building is for the accommodation, both for
private and the public users.
th aforementioned reasons, there is need for well construction of the
residential structure, with the materials that will be capable of resisting
both direct and indirect forces and the weathering effects, not just for a
moment but for the long lasting time, hence the use of concrete is being
can be defined as a hard, strong construction materials consisting of sand,
conglomerate gravel, pebbles, broken stones, or slag in a motor or cement
mixture. It is also known as the mass formed by the coalescence or particles.
could also be defined as the mixture of gravel, pebbles or broken stone with
cement or with tar, etc, used for sidewalks, roadways, foundations, etc and
especially for submarine structure.
many issues has lead to the construction of different types of building like
bungalow and high rise building in order to save money.
to an economist that says human wants is unlimited and that there are limited
resources with which wants can be satisfied. And this has lead to the absolute
maximization and utilization of the said available resources to man which
include fixed and liquid assets. This is one of the reasons why the
conservation of land to safe place was adapted, which led to the construction
of high rise building in town and mostly in well developed countries, for the
fact that human being resides in, and other valuables are kept in these
buildings; safely of the structure under all forces that may be applied must be
reinforced concrete has proven to be the cheapest retail that can effectively
resist these forces like (wind force, direct force and indirect force) and
other force that may be applied within the building, which can be found into
need for the forces stability of this structure under these factors has brought
a challenge to the engineer; hence the reinforced concrete design is concern.
AIM AND OBJECTIVE
reinforced concrete uses extra materials like steel bars, wooden beams or
fibers, along with a wire frame to help mold the concrete and ensure the safe
construction under the worst condition of the force that may be applied within
and outside the building.
reinforcement interacts with the concrete, strengthening it and providing
support houses and other structures. The concrete provide shielding for the
steel so it doesn’t corrode as quickly and together they are a common component
in the modern construction.
this project is aimed in ensuring the safety of life and property based on the
use of limit state design code (BS 8110) in understanding the problem that is
involved in design and resolving same appropriately. It also aimed in knowing
the members of the structure and its weight and the steps taken in achieving
the internal and external forces and proper way of applying the reinforcement
for the proper structural stability.
objective includes knowing that concrete tends to be brittle, breaking easily
under sudden stress and crumbling under the influence time and weather. This
makes it difficult to use traditional concrete structures intended to hold a
large amount of weight or last a long time. Reinforced concrete on the other
hand can hold much more weight and does not wear as easily. Hence most
structure built today use reinforced concrete.
reinforced concrete is used in large scale construction such as bridges and
skyscrapers. It was first created for building construction in the mid 1800s,
and soon spread across both Europe and America. Most major building built by
the beginning of the 1900s was created with reinforced concrete.
Reinforced concrete is subjected to the
same principles as normal concrete, and the quality depends on the mixture of
the cement and how well it is set. The extra material used will also cost more,
especially if steel bars are used instead of wood or recycled fiber
alternatives. However, the glass and fiber alternatives can present
difficulties on their own by becoming weaker in a fire.
concrete is concrete in which the reinforcement bars (rebels) reinforcement
girders, plates or fibers have been incorporate to strengthen the concrete in
tension. It was the concrete that is reinforced with steel or iron is called a
reinforced concrete only. Other materials used to reinforced concrete can be
organic and inorganic fibers as well as composite in different forms. Prior to
the invention of reinforcement, concrete was strong in compression, but weak in
tension. Adding reinforcement crucially increases the strength in tension. The
failure strain of concrete in tension is so low that the reinforcement has to
hold the concrete sections together.
strong ductile and durable construction, the reinforcement needs to have the
bond to the concrete
in the concrete environment.
cases, reinforced concrete uses steel rebels that have been inserted to add
strength. Concrete is reinforced to give it extra tensile strength; without
reinforcement, many concrete building would not have been possible.
concrete can compasses many members or types of structures and components which
concrete can be classified as (1) pre-cast and (2) in-situ concrete.
concrete is focused mainly on the floor system. Designing and implementing the most efficient floor
system is key to creating optimal building structures, small changes in the
design of a floor can have a significant impact on material cost; construction
schedule, ultimate strength, operating costs, occupancy levels and end use of
REINFORCEMENT AND TERMINOLOGY OF MEMBERS
found that the architectural drawing has been thoroughly examined and right
systems of design have been chosen. In this modern computer age, the easiest
way to carry out design is by computer method, but the system of manual method
is still use to arrive at the same point going through all the worst critical
members of the structure by using the factors like
≤ 2.0 for two-way slab
≥ 2.0 for one-way spacing
load on this slab is being estimated using the appropriate moments data,
shears, torsion, the reinforcement are calculated using the appropriate method
of provided by design code.
The moment coefficients given in the
code and moment distribution method were employed in the determination of slabs
and beam moments while the analyses of the substitute frame were used for
bending in small curvature at the outer face (tensile face) of the curvature
the concrete experiences tensile stresses while at the inner face, (compressive
face) it experiences the compressive stress.
slab and beam and also the roof structure causes axial load on the column.
are been provided to each of the members after deign using the appropriate
chart from design codes.
column transfers loads from slab and beam down to the foundation and distribute
same to the soil.
shear reinforcement where also calculated providing the reinforcement with the
appropriate table approved by design code in respects of the value gotten. The
shear reinforcement is in form of links, stirrup where also provided where
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
process to ensure that a structure is safe and of the standard required, this
project have been designed accordingly based on the rules stipulated in limit
state design as provided by the code of
practice BS 8110. Therefore, some
instances are referenced to other codes of practice.
this project, the total members of beams which were analyzed representing
typical cases of the whole structure and designed.
footing wear design together with stairs and its value were provided in details
drawing and theory.
engineering materials made form a mixture of Portland cement, water, fine and
coarse aggregate and small amount of air. It is the most widely used
construction materials in the world and must be properly treated.
is the only major building material that can be delivered to the site and care
must be taken to avoid fake materials. The unique quality of concrete makes
concrete desirable as a building material can be molded virtually to any forms
of shape. Concrete provide a wide latitude in the surface texture and colours
and can be used to construct a wide variety of structures such as highway and streets, bridges, large buildings,
airports runways, irrigation structures, breakwater, pier and docks, sidewalks
silos and farm building, homes and even barges and ships.
two major component of concrete are cement paste and inert materials. Under
normal conditions, concrete grows stronger as it grow older. The chemical
reactions between cement and water that cause the paste to harden and bind the
aggregates together requires time. Therefore proper materials have to be chosen
at the time of construction in order to achieve a stable structure.
LIMIT STATE DESIGN BS 8110
8110 is a British standard for the design and construction of reinforced and
pre - stressed concrete structure.
theory came into existence as a result of the discrepancies between the
behaviour of materials by elastic analysis and that which occur in practice.
BS 8110 is used for most civil engineering and building structures, bridges and
water-retaining structures, this are covered by separate standards of (BS 5400
and BS 8007).
sate design requires the structure to satisfies two principal criteria, that is
the Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and the
serviceability Limit State (SLS). A limit state is a set of performance
criteria (eg. vibration level, deflection, strength, stability, buckling,
twisting, collapse) that must be met when the structure is subjected to loads.
This later leads to checks for the protection for instance deflection and