The central Business District
(C.B.D) is the focal point of the city which comprises of all activities such
as commercial, social, civic life, cultural and prominent land use.
Majority of the
central area of the city provides a wide different of uses serving the needs
not only of the towns own residents, but also of people in the neighboring
villages or small towns that come within the surrounding of its zone.
It is an area of
rapid growth in population, so the demand upon its central area services
becomes intensified. Large building are developed while residential buildings
are given over to commercial, industrial, education, civic or other non-
The above features
often create certain problems which may be in compatible with the zoning
regulation of an area or it may structurally affect the existing land uses of
the area. In view of the above statement, this project will highlight the main
reason responsible for incompatible land use in the central area which include
poor classification of central area uses, lack of zoning of building use group
and the traffic circulation problem(vehicular versus pedestrians traffic). The general
existing land use of the study area, impact of government on land use control
and management as well as the problems caused by the incompatible. Land uses in
the study area, will be discussed and appropriate recommendation will be given.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Statement of Problem
1.2 Aim and Objectives
1.3 Significance of the study
1.4 Scope of study
1.5 Limitation of study
1.6 Study Area
1.7 Definition of Terms
2.0 Theoretical framework and literature review
2.1 Concentric zone theory
2.2 Sector theory
2.2.1 Neighborhood by homer, Hoyt
2.3 Multiple nuclei theory
2.4 Urban location
2.5 Factor that determine the pattern of land
2.6 Review of existing literature
3.0 Preamble [Introduction]
3.1 Method of data collection
3.2 Target population
3.3 Sample frame
3.4 Sample size
3.5 sampling technique
3.6 Data Instrument
3.7 Data analysis
4.0 Data presentation and analysis
4.2 Effect of the incompatible land uses in the
4.3 Government impact on land use control and
5.0 Summary, recommendations and conclusion
According to market
beat United States C.B.D. office report 2011, scallywag org.uk website) A city
core is after referred to as its central business district (C.B.D). It contains
the peak land value which is usually an intersection and is often an area of
The CBD or central
business district is focal point of a city. It is the commercial, office,
retail, and cultural center of the city and usually is the center point for
THE HISTORY OF THE CBD
The CBD developed as the
market square in ancient cities. On market days, farmers, merchants and consumers
would gather in the center of the city to exchange, buy, and sell goods. This
ancient market is the fore runner to the CBD.
As cities grew and
developed, CBDs become fixed location where retail and commerce took place. The
CBD is typically is at or near the oldest part of the city and is often near a
major transportation route that provided the site for the city’s location, such
as a river, railway, or highway.
Over time, the CBD develop
into a center of finance and control government as well as office space. In the
early 1900s, European and American cities had CBD that featured primarily
retail and commercial cores. In the mid 20th century, the CBD
expanded to include office space and commercial business while retail too k a
back seat. The growth of the sky scraper occurred in CBD making them more and
THE MODERN CBD
By the beginning of
the 21st century, the CBD had become a diverse region of the
metropolitan area and included residential, retail, commercial, government,
financial is institutions, medical centers, and culture. The experts of the
city are often located at work Places of institutions in the CBD- lawyers,
doctors, academics, government officials and bureaucrats, entertainers,
directors and financiers.
The recent decades,
the combination of gentrification (residential expansion) and development of
shopping malls as entertainment centers have given the CBD new life. Once can
now find, in addition to housing, mega- ,as, theaters, museums, and stadiums. Sam
Diego’s Horton plaza is an example of redeveloping the downtown as an
entertainment and shopping district. Pedestrian malls are also common today in
CBD in an effort to make the CBD a 24hour a day destination for not only those
who work in the CBD but also to bring in people to live and to play in the CBD.
Without entertainment and cultural opportunities, the CBD is often far more
populated during the day than at night as relatively few workers live in the
CBD and most do commute to their jobs in the CBD. By matt Rosenberg, (2008)
Hence, the ways in
which incompatible of land uses exist between commercial, industrial and
residential land use in the central business district of Ilorin metropolis will
be examined by taking Tanke area and Taiwo
Road as a selected area for the study.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It has been noticed
that, there are problems associable with incompatible land uses in central
business district (CBD) in most urban areas. This contain untidy confusion,
high population rate, traffic congestion and mixture of incompatible uses to
which land has been subjected to this categories of problems are very common,
in most urban area where many activities such as commercial and services activities
from, residential, industrialization and recreational location are been found.
The above stated
problems have give rise to the government to enforce zoning regulation
especially at the core areas of our cities. Despite this, the incompatible uses
still continue to exist in the CBD areas. For this reason, this project
research work intends to provide answer s to some relevant question such as;
are the existing land uses in the study area?
are the problems emanating from those uses?
are the government efforts to control those problems emanating from the
incompatible land uses?
iv. What are the structures of the
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study
is to examine the effects of incompatible land uses in Tanke area to Ibrahim Taiwo
road (i.e. central business district of Ilorin capital city of Kwara state).
To achieve the broad
goal, the following objectives are set up:
asses the existing general land uses of the study area.
analyze the impact of government on land use control and management in the
identify the various problems associated with incompatible land use of the
provide reasonable recommendation to the problem identified.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significant of
this study is to bring light to the effect of incompatible of land uses in
ilorin metropolis which can bring confusion when it come to census of commercial
and residential property and the desterilize of the central master plan of the
To achieve a good
compatible land use there should be an assessment of the general study area,
observed the problem associated with the incompatible land use and provide
possible solution to the identified problem
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The spatial scope of
this study is on Ilorin
metropolis as a whole particular reference to the central Business District (CBD)
of Tanke area to Taiwo street,
while the disciplinary scope is on the study of incompatible land uses in the
Therefore, the effect
of incompatible land uses in the central business district of the study area
will be critically dealing with.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
In the course of
carrying this research certain problems serve as a form of limitation to the research
of this project. The summary of the limitation to the write –up includes:
i. Most of the people interviewed does not give a detail information about the
study because they were afraid and said they didn’t know what am going to use the information for.
2. They also refused to provide adequate and
accurate answers to many questions based on their trade and social status.
3. Inadequate fund, insufficient capital to
carry out data and information make limited to get details or fact for the
4. Limited time, time factor is very
important in carrying out any research
so as a result of making the project
more or less valuable to use, for example, the time that could be used to collect data and
information from the field for the useful of the project research always falls to lecture time .
1.6 STUDY AREA
Ilorin, which is the focus of this
study, is the capital and administrative centre of kwara state, Nigeria. It is
located in the transitional zone of the middle belt and serves as a gate way
city between the north and south western part of the country.
Ilorin is saturated on longitude 4034E
and latitude 8032’N Emielu (1991). Its strategic location as a gate
way city between the south and north makes it become a socio- cultural,
religious and political melting point of the nation.
It is also an
important commercial, industrial and institutional center. The rapid physical development
nature of the city makes the provision, maintenance and funding of
It is also an important
commercial, industrial and institutional center. The rapid physical development
nature of the city makes the provision, maintenance and funding of infrastructure epileptic.
Ilorin comprises of four major words.
The Gambari and Fulani wards that comprises Hausas and Fulanis, and the Ajikobi
and Alanamu wards that are made of the Yoruba with other smaller or sub-wards.
indigenes engage in farming weaving, dyeing and leather works. With the
changing status of the town many more are Trader, civil servants, artisans etc.
The concentration of
all these land use activities thus influencing the population of city has
increased from 208,346 in 1963 to 508 388 in 1991 of which females are more
than males for the purpose of this study, the head count of 1963( which is
still reliable give the population of ilorin to be 508, 388 in 1991 which has been projected
to about 2365,353 by the year 2006. whereby male is 1,193, 783 and
female is 1,171570.(NPC).
LAND: According to Adebayo (2004) Its an
area of the ground, especially one that is used for a particular purpose such
as farming, building transportation and etc. i.e. the solid portion of the
PROPERTY: According to Bashorun it is any
physical or intangible entity that is owned by a person or jointly by a group
of people or a legal entiry likes a corperation. Depending on the nature of the
property, an owner of property has the right to consume, sell, rent, mortgage,
transfer, exchange or destroy it, or to exclude others from doing these things.
COMMERCIAL PROPERTY: Is real estate intended for use
by for profit business, such as office complexes, shopping malls, service
stations and restaurants. It may be purchase outright by a developer for future
projects or leased through a real estate broker. This type of property falls
some where between residential and industrial property.
PEAK LAND VALUE: Is the region within a
settlement with the greatest land value and commerce. As such, it is usually
located in the central business district of a town or city and has the greatest
density oft as transportation links such as roads and rails. ( by David Waugh ,
RECREATIONAL: These are the activities that is
being referred to as leisure i.e. activities
which often brings about
enjoyment, amusement or pleasure and are
considered to be fun( Claudia Wallis 2010)
DOWNTOWN: Is a term primarily used in north America by English speakers to refer to a city’s
core (or center) or central business district, often in a geographical sense.
It has been used in Australia
in cities like Sydney
and melborune and for new zeal and mian city Auckland, as well ( larry ford 2003)
RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY: It means a building or part thereof
or currently designed for use as a single dwelling only and include. On
buildings or other appetencies incidental
to any such use (John A Kilpatrick 1999).
INDUSTRIALIZATION: This is the period of social
and economic change that transforms a human from an agrarian society into an
industrial one. It is a part of a wider modernization process where social
change and economic development are closely related with technological innovation,
particularly with the development of large scale energy and metaltargy
production. It is an extensive organization of an economy for the purpose of
manufacturing. ( By Kemptom 1999)
CBD: The term CBD central business
district of a city, usually typified by a concentration of rental and office building.
Also it is called a central activities district which is the commercial and
often geographical heart of a city. By wikipeia (mobile version). (Arthur 2003)
CRAMATORY: Business directly responsible
for the cremation of the descendant’s remains ( stein, peter 2010)
DOMICLIARY LETTER’S : The document a probate court
issues to the administrator of an estate, authoring them to act on behalf of the estate and to
perform all duties required to administer the estate, according to estate laws
( Gwon, Yeong-Seok 2006)
EQUITABLE TITLE: A right a beneficiary retains to
benefit from the property as specified in the trust. Also called beneficial
title (Steven M. 2003).
ESTATE : Term used in common law to
signify the total of a person’s property entitlements and obligations owned at
death ( Memili, Umit 2012)
BOND: The large scale real
estate development is capital intensive
and initials long - term investment
risks, long term investment risks are better managed when the investment are matched
by long term capital corporate bonds intermediate between long – term
investment needs and long term capital kuye 2006.