study analysed costs and returns of small scale honey bee production in
Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A multi-stage random
sampling technique was used in selecting a total of 40 respondents for the
study. Primary data used for the study were collected with the aid of
structured questionnaire that was administered to sampled respondents. Both
descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analysed field data
collected. The result shows that greatest majority (83.33%) of the respondents
were within the age of 21-50 years. Also, majority (54.17%) of them were male
who were married (51.67%) while (55.83%) of them had household size of between
5-9 persons. Moreso, majority (82.5%) of the honey bee producers have acquired
various forms of formal education. Further analysis indicates that 74.17% of
them are Christians who are mostly traders (37.5%). Arable crop production
(52.5%) dominated the agricultural activities of the honey producers, while
65.0% of them have hives capacity of above 30 litres. The annual
income from bee production was mostly (42.5%) found to be below N50,000.00,
while more than half (61.67%) of them earned a annual total income of
N200,000.00 and above. The study further
showed that most (48.33%) of respondents used stan on the ground method for
honey production. Based on the type of feed used for honey production, sugar
syrup and nectar with 57.5% and 37.5% responses respectively were observed
among the producers, while most (48.335) of them preferred harvesting honey in
the daytime. The methods of colony building adopted by the producers were:
collect swarms (32.5%), purchase colonies (40.85), and purchase nucleus
colonies (34.17%). Hives use for honey production were mostly clay pot (40.83%)
and landstroth (40.0%). Most (49.17%) of the respondents sourced their
materials from open market. The most marketing strategies employed by the honey
producers were: creating awareness (36.67%), sales promo (23.33%), sales
through middlemen (40.0%) and retailers (26.67%). Small scale honey production
was found to be profitable with a profit of N102,950.00
and a gross margin of N139,300.00 while the benefit cost ratio (BCR) was
N1.96k. The small scale honey producers identified institutional, economic, and
social constraints as factors constraining effective honey production. It was
recommended that: regular training and retraining programme should be organized
for the honey producers, provision of adequate extension services to update
their knowledge and skills, and formation of cooperative societies among the
producers to take advantage of prevailing economic policies for exportation of
honey to international markets.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of
the Information (Study)
1.2 Problem Statement
1.3 Objectives of
of the Study
1.6 Limitation of
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
Patterns of Honey Bees
2.3 Types of
2.4 Types of
Equipment and Uses
2.6 Ecology of
2.7 Hive Product
importance/Use of Honey
2.9 Constraints to
2.10 Pest and
for Harvesting Honey
2.12 The Traditional
Method of Processing Honey
2.13 Marketing of
3.1 The Study Area
3.2 Source of Data
3.3 Type of Data
3.4 Instrument for
3.8 Test of
RESULR AND DISCUSION
4.1 Socio Economic Characteristic of the Bees
Keepers in the Study Area
4.2 A percentage distribution procedures and
4.2.5 Percentage distribution of respondents to their
Years of experience
4.2.2 Percentage distribution of respondents
according to the harvesting period
4.2.3 Percentage distribution of the respondent
according to methods of building their colony.
4.2 Percentage distribution of types of hives
use by the respondents
4.3 Percentage distribution of respondent
according to sources of their materials and their marketing charnels
distribution of the respondent according to sources of their material.
4.3.2 Percentage distribution
of the respondents according to their marketing channels
4.3 Varimax Rotated constraints factor
militating against honey bee keeping in the study area.
4.5 Cost and return analysis of honey production
in the study Area.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 Background of
the Information (Study)
Honey beekeeping is the practice of maintaining honey bee
colonies for the purpose of the by-products (Obialor, 2003). The modern honey
beekeeping scientifically know as apiculture is the improvement of the art and
science of beekeeping for man’s economic and health benefits. It is also the
practice of honey bee rearing that combines the knowledge of the local
behaviour and biology of the bees with that of the knowledge of the environment
and the use of apiry equipment to maximize honey production and output of the
bee hive products.
According to Anineme (2006) honey is produced by honey bee
workers mainly from the nectar of flower or honey dew on leaves, back of tree
etc. Thus, honey is defined as “the nectar and saccharine exudation of plants,
gathered, modified and stored as honey in the comb by honey bees (Apis
Keeping honey bee is very essential for man’s benefit.
Traditionally, honey bees are kept in many countries where
they are used for many purposes. However, due to low technology being employed,
Africa has the lowest yield per colony
compared with other continent. For example the Occeania had an average of 38kg
(F.A.O, 1996). North America and USSR each had
an average of 25kg while America
had an average of 9kg per colony in 1984 (F.A.O, 1996).
As reported in USDA (2007), honey is a mixture of
different components including sugar mainly fructose, glucose and other
carbohydrates, water, trace amount of vitamins and minerals and other
compounds. Moreover, honey has a religious significance, as Hebrew bible
contain many reference to honey (F.A.O, 2005). In the book of judges for
example, Samson found a sworn of bees and honey in the carcass of a lion (14:8)
while the book of exodus famously described the promise land as land flowing
with milk and honey (33:3).
A school of thought has it that honey bees are indigenous
For a good understanding of beekeeping, it is useful to describe their natural
history (Marieke, 1991). Much of the knowledge about honey bees is derived from
managed colonies, especially those kept in moveable comb lives.
According to Marieke Mutsaers (1991), the most commonly
found honey bee in Nigeria
is Apismellitera daugonii which lives in colonies throughout the year. Other
species of honey bees include A jemenitica, A. Mellifera Aousdorsata, A
Mellinifaracarnica and A. Cabonosa.
Bee keeping implies the manipulation of a bee colony by
man based on the understanding of the science for the purpose of tapping all
the social and economic benefits of honey bee. Bee farming is predicted on
several understanding of the bee. Management practice can be relatively simple,
low level technologies or even fairly complicated producers using more
sophisticated equipment. Bee keeping is lucrative in many level of technology;
the level should be compatible with the local cultural and economic reality.
A bee colony consist of queen (mother bee) which a fertile
egglaying female and about 10,000-200,000 worker bees which are infertile
(Marieke, 1991). According to Maneke Mustsears (1991), the male bees (drones)
which are stingless and larger than workers are present seasonally. Worker bee
in the same colony are variously colored, some have yellow branded abdomens
while others have black abdomens. The queen may be either yellowish-brown or black.
In nature, honey bees use various places as nest, such as
holes in tree, the underside or thick branches, a shrub curved by climbers or
any other cool dark place. According to Marieke Mustsaers (1991), honey bee
colony may occur at any height from ground level to 20-30m above ground and
even below ground level. Large colonies are usually found in valleys or near a
lake. A lack sticky material called propolies mad of resins collected from
trees by the bees is used to fill up holes in the walls of the nest to close
off parts of the nest cavity (Crave, 1990). In order to maintain a dark
environment which favors the performance of the honey bee, the entrance is
covered completely with a shield or propolies leaving a few holes (12cm across)
to pass through.
apiculture is a traditional way of beekeeping which started existing for longer
than it can be remembered with straw, basket, gourd or pot lives playing an
important role in production of honey.
However, the technology used by traditional bee farmers is
generally very basic and results in extremely poor yields and poor quality
product which often heads to destruction of colonies. Hives placement on trees
is potential hazardous activity. Bee keepers can reap very larger honey
harvests if they use improved (modern) beekeeping methods.
This modern method can ensure that the bee colony is not
destroyed at the time of harvest of honey, as it often happens with over
smoking of traditional hives. In some other countries, Malaysia, bee
farming development to small farmers. The goal was direct transfer of high
technology of bee farming. In many cases, though development programmes have
led to many people becoming bee hivers using relatively expensive equipment meant
for bee farming in relation to the potential, little return was realized from
their investment made available but technical assistance was poor.
Beekeeping is a relatively inexpensive enterprise when
compared with other agricultural endeavors. This is an activity, which fits
well with the philosophy of community development. This is a great potential
for developing beekeeping in many area. In addition, beekeeping helps us in the
a. Supplies an additional non-perishable food for rural
b. It provides a means of gainful work when the farmers are
not involves in planting crops.
c. Creates employment for local craftsman who make equipment.
d. It creates income and nutritionally valuable honey.
e. It ensures an increase in yield than many tropical crops
such as coffee, citrus through enhanced pollination.
Honey bee are known solely as pollinators of fruits and
vegetables which result to high yield of crops, still the practice of honey bee
farming is vast in Nigeria (Akachukwu 1995). Although, it is vast but the
produce gotten is not even enough for the Nigeria economy alone not to talk
of exporting of the produce of foreign exchange earnings.
In other developed countries about 4% of total population
is into honey bee farming by large scale which is enough for their countries
used and for exporting purposed. Note that the production honey are large
quantity and but the crops around the honey beekeepers yield very well, making
the farmer to save returns in crops.
Generally, honey beekeeping attracts the attention of a
great-percentage of the population these days of its profitability. It is
variable (Prolific) complimentary activity for rural people and requires very
little investment and produces quick returns (Njoku 1997). It should therefore,
be promoted as component of integrated with a well-organized extension services
to serve as a link between the apiculture specialist and the rural beekeepers
(Njoku 1997). Therefore, it is very essential that Nigeria society aims at fostering
all activities that can be possible to enhance progress in bee research so that
the full economic value of bee farming will be realized and possibility of
increased production should be establishes.
1.2 Problem Statement
The association between bee and human is a long and close
one. Bees are very essential not only as providers of useful substance such as
honey and wax, but moreso, as pollinators of crops. Mythology and Folk medicine
are rich in bee. Though, bee stings on provocation and in need to defend their hives,
this seemingly discouraging economic importance should not be minded. Since
protective clothing reduces the incidence to a bearable minimum. Honey, an
invaluable food item is a source of instant energy as it comes with 96%
predigested and only an infinitesimal proportion is lost during absorption. It
is recommended for all, both ill and health people alike honey. Honey is
recommended in holy scripture, (The Holy Bible). The Bible, proverbs chapter 24
verses 13 “son eat honey, it is good. Just as honey from the comb is sweet on
tongue” bee farming thus follows a varied and interacting pattern in different
parts of the word. As new crops are grown and new agriculture by killing weeds
before the lower and rapid harvesting of fodder crops both reduce the bees
In some areas, the control of insect which wild bees and
other beneficial insects, those resting place may be endangered by the
reduction of waste land (Grout 1963).
Intensive production systems required improved management
to curtail their potential. The performance is very dependent on the level of
management and control of;
The selection of good
breeding given to keep an efficient colony population.
Health and use of
appropriate disease control measure.
iii. Crop and rector flow for improve nutrition and high
iv. Marketing by identification of where and when the best
price may be achieved. Government assistance is lacking in creating a favorable
economic environment and the right incentive for increased production.
Moreover, a continuing input of agricultural extension
advice is needed to maintain the necessary management standards. Livestock
farmers are masters of their occupation, although majority is illiterate, but
has local experience in any intervention for development of acceptable
technical package capable of increasing production at farmers level was
hampered by spare reliable data base due to limited research on base inadequate
understanding of the production system has leads to complete neglect of
tremendous opportunity attainable for exploiting the indigenous bee species. It
is therefore important to know the real worth of bee in our society.
Motives of the Study
To work with
the local community to increase the understanding of organic and ecological
issues to contribute to sustainable development in Nigeria and to improve the local
1.3 Objectives of the Study
In generally, the broad objective of this study is to
analyze the cost and returns analysis of small scale honey bee production in
Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The specific objectives
are as follows:
socio-economic characteristic of the honey bee farming in the area in relation
to their output.
Identify the various
methods of honey bee keeping practiced in the study area.
constraints militating against honey bee farming of small scale honey bee
production in the study area.
iv. Identify the source
of materials as well as marketing channels for honey in the area.
Analyze cost and returns
of honey bee production.
The socio-economic characteristics of honey bee production
have no significant influence on the total revenue obtained from honey bee
production in the study area.
1.5 Justification of the Study
It is clearly known that rural honey producers face a
problem of low production, though no identification of the problem has been
made (Marike, 1991).
Meanwhile, there is the need to investigate the factors
militating against honey production and ways of improving the traditional way
of honey producer in Ohaozara.
Similarly, the study is timely since there is increasing
shift of emphasis to non-oil exports. This is a result of emphasis on revenue
from the oil products. The oil industry is also wrecked with a problem of
instability and may not generate enough revenue for the execution of the
country’s projects in the near future.
This study is also essential, because little or no
empirical work has done in the area. This research therefore, is planned to
look into the endowment of the area as it concerns honey production and methods
of exploring these potentials.
In the same vein, it is an important contribution to
ascertain how farmers diversify their earnings. This, however, serves as crop
insurance and reveals the usefulness or apicultural practices in the economy of
1.6 Limitation of the Study
The study was base on the assumption that the sample
farmers were through representation of the other characteristic in
socio-economic status, but the following problems was encountered first:
iii. Excessive noise due to near by markets’ churches and
factories within the area
iv. Bush burning
Lack of honey combs and
accessibility of honey bees to garden with flowering plants.