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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00002548

No of Pages: 61

No of Chapters: 5

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Background to the Study

Statement of the Problem

Purpose of the Study

Research Questions

Scope of the Study

Significance of the Study

Operational Definition of Terms



The English Language in Nigeria

Importance of Writing Skill to Secondary School Student

The Nature of Paragraph

Limitation of Errors

 Contractive Analysis

Advantages of Contractive Analysis

Limitation of Contractive Analysis



Research Type

Population, Sample and Sampling Technique


Procedure for Data Collection

Data Analysis Techniques



Analysis of Demographic Information of the Respondents

Data Analysis and Findings



Discussion of Findings



Suggestions for Further Studies







Background to the Study

English language is the first foreign language a learner is introduce to in Nigeria as an official language, learning English has become a great necessity to everyone who realised the importance of the language. Over 80% of  readers focus  closely on the errors of the writer, knowing fully well what the reader want, writers have put on the spirit of research in finding the root cause of how and when a word can be use  and appreciate in the outside world. William (2007) stated that language is paramount, we use it to define who we are and to shape our place in life, we use language to learn, to socialize, to dream of what to achieve, to think e.t.c. Throughout history, Language serve as a bound to bring people together into single societies and to preserve their customs, culture, law and stories.

English is an official language in Nigeria and its has many functions. These functions are implied in its role as a second language in the country. Nigeria, as one of the English speaking countries uses English language as an official language which is used in all spheres of life. English language has become the nation’s medium of administration, communication, instruction in various institutions and businesses. Considering the importance of English language therefore, it stands as a binding language which unifies all the tribes and ethnic groups we have in the country. In recognition of importance of the English language in enhancing educational attainment and for improving communication and writing ability of citizens, the Nigerian government has made the subject a core school subject (FRN, 2013) it is compulsory for students to have a credit pass in English language before gaining admission into the university. This also explains why many parents make it a priority by making sure that their children pass at credit level or above in English language.

If English Language plays such an important role in our national lives as well as in our education system, therefore it means that it should be well learnt. English language is used in government as the official language for all types of official records and instructions in business and commerce and publicity in education, science and engineering as the language of instruction in the classroom and laboratory reports, in the mass media as the language of information and propaganda and in creative art and literature as the language of novels, poems, short stories, music and drama. In expressing ideas everybody possess their own abilities. There are student who clearly, brightly and confidently  expressing their way of thinking in spoken language meanwhile, there are student who can be said to be weak in spoken but well enough in his or her written form.

Robert Lado stated that language is partial representation unit of language. “learning to write a foreign language is learning to put down the graphic symbol that represent a language one understand so that the others can read the language and the graphic representation” the quotation implies that  before writing the writer should have a border knowledge, understanding the linguistics rules, wider vocabulary, emotion and even the present situation, so writing is not only making of a sentences which have no inter-connection between each other or without paying attention to the meaningful aspect but rather writing is making our written pieces worth and understood by the readers. The purpose of the writing itself is the expression of ideas to the readers so the ideas should be seen as the most important aspect of the writing  on the other hand, the writer needs also to pay some attention to a formal aspect such as neat handwriting, correct spelling, punctuation, as well as acceptable grammar and careful selected of vocabulary.

As stated by Zhang Fxin (2001) that writing is a complex skill, it embraces structure, vocabulary rhetoric concepts and other clement. This skill relates with listening speaking and reading because of writing complexity writers are bound to commit errors which motivate this research work to focus on the level of competency of junior secondary schools. If English language plays such an important role in our national live as well as in our education system, it means therefore that it should be learnt. It is in recognition of student’s poor performance in written necessary and other language skills in general that a research on error analysis in written essay among junior secondary school student is carried out.



Statement of the Problem

Writing skill is the most proficient aspect that show the ultimate level at which users of English language have master some quality rules in English language which cannot be overlook. This study aims to access the errors students, are due to the fact that English language is not our first language or mother tongue.

Thus, this study compares and contrasts the element of L1 and L2 as to be able to analyse the causes.


Purpose of the Study

The study aims at identifying the type of errors student commit most or frequently in their written essays so as to expose to English teachers to know where to lay emphasis on and also where to modify so as to enhance efficient teaching and learning.

The study further aim to analyse describe and explain the errors in the written English of students in junior secondary schools such as wrong tense usage, spellings, errors, omission of articles e.t.c which are common features in the writings of student or learners.


Research Questions

The followings research questions are presented for this study.

1)                Do they commit error, what types?

2)                What are the most common error committed in the essay

3)                What are the factors responsible and source for the  error

Scope of the Study

This study is carried out in Egbeda local government area of Oyo state. This study is limited to four (4) selected junior secondary schools. The names of school are

1)                Olodo Community Grammar School

2)                Community Secondary School Kumopayi

3)                God is able College Wofun

4)                Educational Legacy College Olukunle

This study focuses on J S S 3 students because they ought to have attained certain certain degree of competence in English language since they are preparing for an external examination.



Significance of the Study

The significant of the study are;

1)                Enlightenment on what error means and its types

2)                Identifying the most common types among junior secondary school student

3)                Enable the teacher to know how to correct and amend the root cause of students error.

4)                It will give better understanding about History of  English language in Nigeria

5)                It will be of assistance to future researchers in English education.

Operational Definition of Terms

          The following terms are explained as used in the study.

Analysis: this can be seen as the identification and description of error committed in essay writing in English language.

Error: this means all the element of ungrammatical in essay writing. This can also means deviation from the normal standard of writing

Essay: can be said to mean a piece of writing written to communicate ideas to test the writing skill of such student

Error Analysis: this mean identification of causes and effect of errors make by learners in a piece of write up.

Contractive Analysis: this means them linguistic way of comparing two things to know the similarities and the point of differences

L1: This can be define as the first language a child is expose to right from birth

Mother Tongue Interference: the term simply means the interruption of the first language of a learner in the one he/she is about to learn

Mistake: this term can be seen as an error which occur as a result of carelessness which learner can easily correct

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