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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00004753

No of Pages: 89

No of Chapters: 5

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This research examines firm characteristics, corporate governance and audit delay in Nigeria. The main objective is to examine the relationship between firm age and audit delay and also determine the relationship between number of committees on corporate governance and audit delay. The secondary source i.e. audited annual reports and accounts of the sampled companies listed on the Nigeria Stock Exchange was used for data collection while the findings were analyzed using OLS statistical technique. The study discovered that firm age has a positive significant relationship with audit delay and that board size has a positive significant relationship with audit delay. The study concludes that audit fee has positive relationship with delay audit, implies that the larger the audit charged by audit firm the wider the audit delay. The study however recommends amongst others that companies should be mandated to shift their balance sheet date to July to avoid December rush and that regulatory bodies should come up with a specified model that will reveal the amount to be charged by audit firms for audit services.



Title Page                                                                 i

Certification                                                             ii

Dedication                                                                iii

Acknowledgements                                                   iv

Abstract                                                                  v

Table of Contents                                                     vi


Chapter One: Introduction                                     1

1.1       Background to the Study                                          1

1.2       Statement of Problem                                               4

1.3       Research Questions                                                 5

1.4       Objective of the Study                                              6

1.5       Statement of Hypothesis(es)                                      6

1.6       Significance of the Study                                          7

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                   8

1.8       Limitations of the Study                                           8

1.9       Definition of Terms                                                   10

Chapter Two: Literature Review                             12

2.1   Introduction                                                             12

2.2   Organizational Performance                                      16

2.2.1 Concept of Performance Appraisal                            18

2.2.2 The Performance Appraisal Process                          20

2.2.3 Types of Staff Performance Evaluation                      22

2.2.4 Steps in Staff Appraisal                                           23

2.2.5 Factors that Contribute to Performance Appraisal         24

2.2.6 Method of Performance Appraisal                             26

2.2.7 Objective of Performance Appraisal                          30

2.2.8 Ensuring Effective Performance Appraisal Generally         32

2.3   Employee Motivation                                                33

2.3.1 Characteristics of Motivation                                    36

2.3.2 Ways of Motivation                                                  37

2.3.3 Steps in Motivation                                                  37

2.3.4 Test of Motivation                                                    38

2.3.5 Theories of Motivation                                              41

2.3.6 Victor Vrooms’ Expectancy Theory                           46

2.3.7 Douglas McGregor’s Theory (X AND Y)                      47

2.4   Relationship between Motivation and Performance         50

2.5   Fostering the will to work                                         52

2.6   The Conceptualization of the Determinant of an Organizational Performance                                      55

2.6.1 Individual Judgement-Based Merit Reward Systems         56

2.6.2 Goal Setting and Management by Objective              57

2.6.3 Staff Selection                                                        60

2.6.4 Training and Development                                       61

2.6.5 Leadership                                                              63

2.6.6 Organization Structure                                            65

2.7   Summary of the Review                                            66


Chapter Three: Methodology                                   68

3.1       Introduction                                                             68

3.2       Research Design                                                      68

3.3       Population of the Study                                             68

3.4       Sample Size                                                             68

3.5       Sampling Techniques                                               69

3.6       Sources of Data Collection                                        69

3.7       Method of Data Presentation                                     69

3.8       Method of Data Analysis                                           70

Chapter Four: Data Presentation, Analysis and Discussion                                                              72

4.1   Introduction                                                             72

4.2   Data Presentation and Interpretation                 72

4.3   Data Analysis and Hypothesis Testing                       73

4.4   Discussion of Findings                                              86


Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations                                                  94

5.1   Introduction                                                             94

5.2   Summary of Findings                                               95

5.3   Conclusion                                                              96

5.4   Recommendations                                                    97

References                                                               99





1.1   Background to the Study

Managers in all types of organizations are continually faced with the fact that vast differences exist in the performance of a group of employees. Some employee always perform at high level, need little or no direction and appear to enjoy what they are doing, on the other hand, other employees perform only at marginal levels, require constant attention and are often absent from their work station. The reasons for these differences in performance are varied and complex, some of the difference could be attributed to individual characteristics, such as personality, intelligence, or ability. We could also focus on organizational influence such as job rewarding system, the supervision style, Training and development package, selection process, management by objective used by the organization are contributing to these difference in performance. The core concept associated with each of these properties is motivation.

Therefore, one of the major problems controlling management is that of motivating workers to perform assigned task to meet or surpass predetermined standard goals.

Motivation is one of the three factors in the function of directing and is defined as that energizing force that induces or compels and maintains behaviour. Human behaviour is motivated, it is goal directed (Nwachukwu, 1988). It is not easy to motivate an individual for the success of any motivational effort depends on the extent at which the motivator meets the needs of the individual employees for whom it is intended. Motivation is a internal psychological process whose presence or absence is inferred from observed performance. Motivated behaviour has three basic characteristic viz;

1.     It is sustained; it is maintained for a longtime until satisfied.

2.     It is goal directed, it seeks to achieve an objective.

3.     It results from felt need, an urge directed towards a need (Nwachukwu, 1988:181)

The motivational forces shaping business enterprise are many and varied. They are related to the internal and external conditions in which the organization operates. While profit is, without question the primary objective of businessmen, it is by no means the only one nor is it always minimized, striving for security, power, and prestige frequently play important and sometimes opposing roles (George, 2001).

Within a large corporation diverse pattern on motivation maybe found, some are motivated by the job security and the need to fulfill the expectation of their peers, some are organization men and others seem to be searching for prestige. Not only will the goals of management vary with the motivational pattern of men occupying the managerial ranks, but will also depend to a considerable extent upon the particular situation of the business or industry at the time.

Another core notion in this study is performance; it is this variable that is the key to evaluating the effectiveness of individuals, groups, leaders and organization. When performance is satisfactory, the organization is judged to be successful. Thus all the variables in this study are linked to the performance segment of the model. In summary, it is apparent why the topic of organizational performance and motivation remain one of the most important when considering organizational behaviour and performance. The view of the individual worker as unlimited resources who is solely motivated by economic means is far too simplistic. What managers need are approaches to acquire, motivate and retain these valuable Resources.

1.2   Research Problem

Much have been said and written about the importance of motivation in the attainment of organizational performance. Most business organizations acknowledged the importance of motivation to the efficient and effective management of their organizational resources. It is however necessary to point everyday activities, we met with people whose character and behaviour, perception, attitude, goals and value systems and expectation, are in no way similar to one another or to the managers. Therefore, behind every management decision and action are assumption about human nature needs and behaviour pattern. Therefore, it is important for management to diagnose the situation confronting motivational style or system that will improve their chances of success; hence it is on this basis the researcher would examine the nature and extent of motivation given to the employees and their bearing on the organizational performance.

1.3   Research Questions

In order to achieve the objectives of this research, the following questions need answer(s).

1.     What is the relationship between Organizational performance and employee motivation?

2.     What is the relationship between chief executive officer management by objective and organizational performance?

3.     Are employees motivated through improved recognition and advancement they have on training and development on organizational performance?

4.     What is the relationship between employees selection of organizational members and organizational performance?

5.     What is the relationship between the joint actions of these variable and organizational performances?

1.4   Objective of the Study

The following are the objective of the study;

1.     To determine the relationship between Organizational performance and employee motivation.

2.     To find out the relationship between chief executive officer management by objective and organizational performance.

3.     To determine if employees motivated through improved recognition and advancement they have on training and development on organizational performance.

4.     To determine the relationship between employee’s selection of organizational members and organizational performance.

5.     To find out the relationship between the joint actions of these variable and organizational performances.

1.5   Research Hypotheses

The research hypotheses relevant to the above stated questions and objectives were:


Hypothesis One

HO:   Organizational performance is negatively related to employees motivation.

HI:    Organizational performance is positive related to employees’ motivation.

Hypothesis Two

HO:   There is no significant relationship between chief executive officer management by objective and organizational performance.

HI:    There is significant relationship between chief executive officer management by objective and organizational performance.

Hypothesis Three

HO:   Employees are not motivated through improved recognition and advancement they have on training and development.

HI:    Employees are motivated through improved recognition and advancement they have on training and development.

Hypothesis Four

HO:   There is no relationship between employees selection of organizational members and organizational performance.

HI:    There is significant between employees selection of organizational members and organizational performance.               

Hypothesis Five

HO:   There is no significant relationship between the joint actions of these variables and organizational performance.

HI:    There is significant relationship between the joint actions of these variables and organizational performance.     

1.6   Significance of the Study

a.     Management: The research will create greater awareness among the management of industries and commerce, regarding employees motivation and organizational performance in business. It will equip management with motivational techniques appropriate in ensuring employees compliance and higher organizational performance.

b.     Stakeholder: It enables the stakeholders to identify the factors of motivation such as rewarding system, selection process, training and development, and management by objective that will improve organizational performance.

c.     Researchers: The study will be relevant to researcher in similar or related field as it contributes to the stock of existing knowledge in the subject matters and therefore recommended for further study.

1.7   Scope of the Study

The scope of the study border on the impact of motivational system adopted by management in organizational performance taking into consideration both private and public enterprise. Benin City of Edo State was focused on in carrying out this study with a time frame of 5 years (i.e. 2009 – 2014). For an effective survey, a sample size of 120 was used.   

1.8   Limitation of the Study

In writing this project, so many problems were encountered, which are listed below:

·                  Geographical Coverage: Factor that may likely affect the work is the issue of investigating the concerned people in carrying out the research work.

·                  Problem of sourcing for material: The research was faced with problems of getting current materials, textbooks, journals and seminar papers related to subject matter.

1.9   Definition of Terms

1.     Employee: An employee is an individual who was hired by an employer to do a specified. The employer is hired by the employer after an application and interview result in his or her selection as an employer.

2.     Motivation: Motivation is the internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energize to be continually interested and committed to their job or to make an effort to attain their goal.

3.     Organization: An organization is a social unit of people that is structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals.

4.     Performance: Performance is the accomplishment of a given task measured against present known standard of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed.

5.     Shareholder: Shareholder is an individual, group or organization that owns one or more share in a company, and in whose name the share certificate is issued.

6.     Performance appraisal: Performance appraisal is the process by which a manager or consultant examines and evaluate an employee’s work behaviour by comparing it with present standard.

7.     Job description: Job description is a broad, general and written statement of a specific job, base on the findings of a job analysis.

8.     Training: Training can be seen as an organized activity aimed at imparting information and or instructing to improve the recipient’s performance or to help him or her attain a required level or knowledge or skill.

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