deterioration of the moral life of children who grow into youthful age and then
into adulthood in the face of immoralities has become an issue which needs
urgent action in today’s Nigerian society. This can be attributed to a lot of
reasons but the mass media with us Persuasive messages cannot be exonerated.
Television being a viable medium of the mass media stands at the fore in
shaping the attitudes of children. This research work has therefore made a good
attempt at unrevealing the various effects of television programmes on Nigerian
children using Gaius Benton schools as a pivot. In this regards, a historical
background of events bading to this study and analysis of findings and
recommendations are duly presented. It is found in this research work that
television programmes affect children’s moral behaviour both positively and
negatively depending on the moral standards of the programme. The appraised and
critical examination of issues are the mainstay of this research work thus, if
the recommendation are heeded it will help in enforcing and maintaining good,
upright and acceptable moral behaviour in Nigerian children.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vii
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 8
1.3 Objectives of the study 9
1.4 Significance of the study 10
1.5 Research Questions 11
1.6 Scope of the study 12
1.7 Limitation of the study 13
1.8 Operational Definitions of
2.1 Introduction 16
2.2 Concept of Television 18
2.3 Brief History of
2.4 Television as a medium for
mass comm. 20
2.5 Television as an instrument of social animals 22
2.6 Media Influence on
2.7 Impact of Television
Viewing on Children 20
2.8 Theoretical Framework 36
2.9 Summary of Literature Review 39
3.1 Introduction 41
3.2 Research Design 41
3.3 Population of study 42
3.4 Sample Size 43
3.5 Sampling Techniques 45
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection 47
3.7 Validity of instrument 48
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 48
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
presentation and analysis 49
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.3 Conclusion 63
5.4 Recommendations 64
5.5 Recommendations for Further Studies
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
is a sight and sound medium through which messages and information ideas are communicated to a wide range of audience.
viewing is a common activity engaged in by children, especially in this era of
proliferation of television as a medium for communication.
end, television messages are broadcast for certain purposes, this implies that
television through it’s programmers’ has certain influence on individuals as
chapter presents an overview of television and a brief history of television. It
also encapsulates the statement of problem of this research work, the objective
of this study, significance and the scope of study, research question as well
as operational definition of certain terms.
has made tremendous impact on Nigeria society and in the world at large. It
possesses immense power to influence the viewer and sharpen his sensitivity in
all spheres of life. Various theories have been propounded by different
scholars, some of which support the fact that the media possess immense power
in influencing the viewer, while others have consistently countered the notion.
as one of the world’s most amazing inventions has come to stay and has over the
years been a veritable channel for communication in the world.
effects of television on adults can be significant but its influence in
children goes much deeper. The increasing rate of immoralities in the society
today among youths can be easily attributed to inventions of technologies like
television, internet, films and motion pictures by an average Nigerian.
therefore is an examines the influence television viewing exacts on Nigerian
children. Gaius Benton schools; cut across all sections of children from
nursery, primary to secondary school.
x-rays how the moral behaviour of children can be affected by television
viewing which can be positive or negative.
is viewed in almost every home by people of all ages, the senile, parents,
youths, children even infants.
intensity of viewing by children and the extended periods of time over which
they view television raises concern for their moral development.
world today is said to be a global village thus issues, events and experiences
going on in one part of the world can be seen instantly by people in other
parts. People have more information about what is going on in world’s events
than any other generation in human history.
over the years has played a pivotal role in the lives of individuals
particularly children. The rapid growth of television after the World War II
brought entertainment and information into the homes of many.
space communication was achieved in 1962 when a space probe radioed data, was
moved back to the earth as it speed past the planet venues. The satellite made
possible the broadcast over television between Europe
and the United States of
America and today, the rest of the world.
television arrived in the 1970’s to most areas of the United States
and now, to other parts of the world”. Akpan (2002, p.19) the use of television
was expanded by the use of home videos and dick system.
uses a person-to-person communication gestures, facial expression to effect
communication to it’s audience.
as a broadcast medium has its main functions of information, education and entertainment on a wide range of subjects. An average child has
access to but a small part of such information but it’s influence cannot be
over emphasized for a look they say is worth more than a thousand words.
programmes may contain historical, scientific social, religious, economic and
other matters. Those programmes when viewed especially by children broaden
their cosmological perspectives thereby giving them better insight into
happenings around him.
has served as a viable tool for instruction on religions matters. It has also
served in experimental purposes. When properly used, quality television
introduces children to a world beyond their classroom and motivate them to
learn. Because children relate easily to television as a medium they are
familiar with, they are more apt to absorb the material they learn from it.
amount of television programmes watched by children has caused considerable
concern for parents and educators alike. It is thought that children remain
glued to the television set for long periods of time, viewing unsuitable
programmes which a=mat adversely affect not only their cognitive but emotional
development. No doubt, children are susceptible to the images which they see on
the television. This therefore stress the fact that immoral programmes can to a
large extent affect the morality of children all over the country and the would
through the television can be referred to as purposive because the information
disseminated are meant to affect the audience positively or negatively. That
is, it has a variety of consequences which may be direct or indirect.
effects or consequences include such factors as emotional response, attitudinal
shift or changes in a child’s view of the world after exposure to certain kinds
have the capacity to give themselves over completely to the world created by
pictorial media (television). Such intense involvement often leads to storing
emotional response and to a large extent affect the moral behaviour of
1.2 Statement of Problem
people think that television viewing does not have lasting positive or negative
effect on children. Studies have shown through analysis of the effects of
television programmes over the years that the effects of television viewing on
children is great.
study seeks to find out the degree or extent to which the children of Gaius
Benton schools have been affected by television viewing and to establish if
there are programmes on television that can enhance or mar the moral behavior
of the children match.
been cases where children fold papers and light them up with attempts to
practice cigarette smoking, having watched the action on the screen of
of clothing children see on television seems to shape their demands on parents
who purchase clothes for their children, especially at festive periods. All
these acts and more are caused as a result of visuals on the screen of
1.3 Objectives of Study
major objective of this study is to determine the impact of television viewing
on the moral behaviour of Nigerian children.
To examine the
benefits derived by children from television viewing.
To determine the
negative as well as the positive affects of television on the lives of Nigerian
To determine how
the effects affect other members of the family and the Nigerian society at
television stations to promote generally acceptable social values and norms,
foster the spirit of self discipline and generally accepted moral standards
through the programmes watched by children.
1.4 Significance of Study
study is immensely important especially to Nigerian parents because it will
help to inform them on the effects of television on the moral behaviour of
their children as it will help them determine what programmes to expose their
study will serve as a means of future research for media researchers, scholars
also help media ie television stations know the right type of programmes to air
for children consumption so as to build morals and not kill morals in children.
1.5 Research Questions
researcher of this work has prepared certain questions to help in the course of
derive benefit from television viewing?
Does it have
positive or negative effect on the moral life of the children?
How does this
affect other members of the family and the society at large?
programmes maintain standards that can ensure acceptable moral behaviour of
1.6 Scope of the Study
study covers the effect of television viewing on the moral behaviour of
Nigerian children. Gains Benton Schools as a representation of children of all
ages serves as the case study of this research work.
the main function of television as a sight and sound medium is to inform,
entertain and educate its audience. This study will reveal the extent it does
these with respect to the effects of viewing habit of children of Gains Benton
Schools where the work is countered.
research work is based on a sample of children between the ages of two (2) to
eighteen (18) years of age (Nursery to secondary school age).
1.7 Limitation of Study
greatest limitation to this study is time factor. There is limited time for the
researcher to explore the topic.
some of the children are too small and can neither read no write or even
respond to questions through interview. Also, some of the respondents,
students/pupils are too naive as they feel that the questions will be used
financial constraint is another set back encountered by the researcher.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
contextual definition of certain terms are considered important on this study
by the research.
Television: Television is an electronic device that
utilizes motion pictures, sound and light in disseminating information to a
wide and diversified audience to create an effect.
Television is the medium that possess
credibility audio visual qualities and can be utilized in virtually development
communication (Nwosu, 2005, p.164).
Moral: The word moral comes from a Latin
word “Moralis” which means custom or manner (Okunna, 2003, p.1).
Morals are principles and beliefs concerning
right and wrong behaviour.
Effect: This means a cause, a result or an
outcome. It is a change produced by an action.
Behaviour: This means the way a child acts or
Children: This is the plural of the noun child. A
child is a young person (a boy or a girl) within pre primary, primary and post
primary school age, (2 – 18 yrs).
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