This study investigated the effects of fear of
retirement on job performance of teachers in selected secondary schools in
Ikorodu Local Government Area in Lagos State. The sample consisted of 160
teachers both male and female. Five null hypotheses were formulated to address
the research questions, the instrument used to generate the relevant data was
likert scale questionnaire. The hypotheses formulated were analysed using the
independent t-test and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient statistical
methods. The findings show that there was a significant influence of fear of
retirement on teachers’ performance in the school, that there is a significant
difference in the fear of retirement between male teachers and their female
counterparts in the teaching profession; that there is a significant difference
between duration of service of teachers and fear of retirement among teachers
in secondary schools; that there is a significant difference between
qualification of teachers and fear of retirement among them; and finally that
there is a significant difference between the age of teachers and their fear of
retirement in the school. The hypotheses were exhaustively discussed based on
the findings, recommendation and suggestions for further research were also
discussed based on the findings of the study.
1.0 Background to the Study 1
1.1 Statement of the Problems 6
1.2 Purpose of the Study 7
1.3 Research Questions 8
1.4 Research Hypotheses 9
1.5 Significance of the Study 9
1.6 Limitation of the Study 11
1.7 Definition of Terms 11
TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 12
Nature and Concept of Retirement 12
Retirement Decision 15
The Major Reasons for Retiring at or
After Pension Age 19
Why People Fear Retirement 20
Types of Retirement 22
Phases of Retirement 25
The Effects of Biological Factors on
The Effects of Socio-Cultural Factors
on Retirement 28
The Effects of Psychological Factors
on Retirement 30
2.10 Summary of the Findings of the Works Reviewed 32
CHAPTER THREE: Research
3.1 Research Design 34
3.2 Location/Area of Study 35
3.3 Population 35
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Technique 35
3.5 Research Instrument 36
3.6 Validity of Instrument 36
3.7 Reliability of Instrument 37
3.8 Procedure for Data Collection 37
3.9 Data Analysis 37
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 38
4.1 Introduction 38
4.2 Descriptive Analysis of Data 38
4.3 Hypotheses Testing 42
4.4 Summary of Findings 47
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF
FINDINGS, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 48
5.1 Discussion of Findings 48
of the Study 50
5.3 Conclusions 51
5.4 Recommendations 52
1.0 Background to the Study
which can be described as the termination of a working career, it is as sure as
death and it may come in various forms. It may come suddenly as retrenchment or
lay-off to workers whose employers decide to dispense with their services. It
may come in form of a long notice. For example, government civil service reform
policy stipulates that except for judges and university professors, all other
workers should be prepared to go on compulsory retirement at age 60 or after 35
years of service whichever comes earlier. Industrial firms may suddenly
retrench their workers for redundancy, low productivity or lack of raw
materials. Trade union activists may lose their jobs if their employers regard
their continuity in service as a threat to their organisation. Protracted illness
or accident may incapacitate some workers who are eventually forced to retire
(Omoegun, et al 1996). In most cases, people are not prepared for retirement,
in terms of long range planning against a rain day, even when there is
retirement insurance. Therefore many people fear to retire.
The fear of
retirement is a very important factor militating against efficiency, integrity,
loyalty, commitment, and dedication. The fear of retirement usually leads to
psychological insecurity and unwillingness on the part of the worker to plan
for the future. To some dedicated and committed workers, retirement may come as
a rude shock that may shatter their hopes in future thereby leading to poor
work performance (Ayo, 1998).
workers, the mere thought of retirement is dreadful, frightening and depressing
because it may connote misery, loss of status and prestige, poverty, drastic
reduction in income, boredom, loneliness, inactivity or even premature death.
With this attitudes, workers who are approaching retiring age, who have not
prepare for it, may not do their jobs as effectively as they could.
normally should be a period in the life of a worker to rest from the onerous
tasks of previous years. It should be a period to sit back and enjoy the fruit
of past labour. To ensure this, the guidance counsellor is called upon to
educate adults on precautionary measures to be taken to make retirement a joy
and not a misery. Anything that has a beginning most have an end and retirement
of a worker is no exception. The time to start to prepare for retirement should
be from the first day of employment (Adeleke, 2003).
such as these run riot in some potential retirees’ minds:
To which place do I retire, my present
place of work or my home town?
What sex adjustment do I make as a
retired person? Do I need to marry a new wife as a pensioner?
How do I take care of my gratuity and
pension? Do I put my gratuity in a fixed deposit or savings account?
Do I invest my money in agricultural
production? Do I use my gratuity to build a house in which to retire?
Do I listen to the so-called experts
in financial matters to go into business?
How do I cope with my financial
obligations to member of my extended family – cousins on holidays, relations
with their newly married wives, hospital bills for sick relations, money for
What other work activities do I need
to do to avoid boredom and what voluntary services can you render to the
community as a retiree?
a period workers cease to be actively engaged in daily work or job activities.
It is a time of rest and planning for successful retired life. Regrettably,
many workers today do not prepare or plan for their retirement. These workers
do not put necessary things in place towards planning for their compulsory
retirement after active work life (Uzozie, 2004).
servants who are retired today regret their not planning well for their
retirement from work. These workers did not embark on savings, investments in
stocks or in profit-oriented ventures that will yield good dividend for them
during their retirement. No wonder some people after retirement start to seek
another employment almost immediately because they do not have the wherewithal
to cushion the effect of retirement. Most retirees develop serious ailments
such as hypertension due to much thinking resulting from sudden unplanned
retirement. Others become psychologically imbalance due to the shock of their
unplanned retirement and the uncertainty that await them during retirement,
while many die as a result of distress during retirement (Mundi, 1999).
the process of ageing, the individual looking forward to retirement dreams of a
day when he can put aside the duties and responsibilities that chain him to his
routine (Thoroman, 1998). Yet, when he takes a closer look at retirement, it
possesses severe threat to age. It signals the decline of vital powers to the
point where he is no longer acceptable as a working partner in the forward
movement of the society; from a productive point of view, it closes the door on
the future, when an executive lays down his pen and closes his files, his
authority is gone. A king could only put aside his crown if he dies, and to
some, retirement is a psychological death, after which life is vegetative. To
others, it signals the onset of the twilight of the gods, a slow decline
through which they fight a losing battle to keep prestige, status, and even
self-respect. The older citizens are always “infested” with fear of employers,
who will turn them down (Davidson, 1998). They have learnt while in regular
employment, many companies consider workers of retiring age as potential source
of difficulty. As a result, those workers have fear in their own faith, in
their physical and mental abilities to perform adequately (Attah, 2001).
stated that retirement means a loss of status and prestige, loss of established
comfortable routine, loss of old social contacts and particularly loss of
respect from others and self-respect. James (1998) claimed that to retire and
move to a leisure stress and anxiety. Based on research evidence, an individual
should anticipate and plan for retirement for a more satisfying retirement. In
the study of self-concept and roles during old age, Cavan (2004) reported that at
the point of compulsory retirement, the main means of carrying out the special
roles disappears. The man is lawyer without a case, a book keeper without
books, a teacher without pupils, a mechanic without tools. Secondly, he is
excluded from his group of former co-workers, as an isolated person, he may be
completely unable to function in his former roles. Thirdly, as a retired
person, he begins to find a different evaluation of himself in the mind of
others, from the evaluation he has as an employed person, he is no longer seen
with respect in the eyes of former
subordinates, praise in the faces of former superior and approval in the mind
of former co-workers. The looking glass composed of his former important group throws
back a changed image; he is done for! An old timer, old fashion, on the shelf.
1.1 Statement of the Problems
planning in life tends to make people to become imbalance psychologically,
socially and in most cases, economically. For instance, many civil servants
today, do not plan and put things in place in anticipation of their retirement.
Most civil servants during their working days, behave as if there will not be a
time to stay away from active service. Their orientation is to live freely and
enjoy whatever they have. They do not have the perception to save for the rainy
day. They fail to invest their money in money yielding ventures and most fail
to train their children. The resultant effect of this unplannessness by some
civil servants, is the problem of shock, disbelieve and hopelessness which
often lead to frustration, regret with attendant ill-health and sudden death
(Adiele, 1995). Some are carried away with pressures of office such as free
cars, houses and others to plan for their retirement. There have been cases of
poor health leading to sudden death of the retired person. If this trend is not
checkmated, there is need to professional assist potential retirees to avoid
fear on retirement.
therefore, gave rise to the investigation into the effect of fear of retirement
on job performance of teachers in selected secondary schools in Ikorodu Local
Government Area of Lagos State.
1.2 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of
this study among other things include:
To find out whether fear of retirement
affects job performance of teachers.
To examine whether lack of planning
influences teachers retirement.
To investigate whether there is
relationship between planned and unplanned retirement of teachers in secondary
To determine whether there is
difference between teachers who planned for retirement and those who did not.
To find out whether there is
difference between the perception of male and female teachers towards
To find out whether there is effect of
fear on retirement among teachers.
To find out possible solution to fear
of sudden/unplanned retirement and its implications for counselling.
1.3 Research Questions
following research questions were raised in this study:
Does fear of retirement affect job
performance among teachers?
Does lack of planning influences
retirement of teachers?
Is there any relationship between fear
and retirement among teachers?
Will there be any difference between
teachers who planned for retirement and those who did not?
To what extend will there be
difference between the perception of male and female teachers on fear of
What are the effects of fear of
retirement on teachers?
To what extent can we find possible
solutions to the problem of fear of retirement among teachers?
What are the implications for
counselling on fear of retirement among teachers?
1.4 Research Hypotheses
following hypotheses were formulated in this study:
There will be no significant influence
of fear of retirement on teachers’ job performance.
There will be no significant difference
in the fear of retirement between male and female teachers.
There will be no significant
difference between duration of service and the fear of retirement among
There will be no significant difference
between qualification of teachers and the fear of retirement.
There will be no significant
difference between the ages of teachers and the fear of retirement.
1.5 Significance of the Study
will be beneficial to the following:
will help those who are about to go on retirement to make proper preparations
for their retirement. It will also enable them to understand that working as a
civil servant does not last forever and therefore, they would be expected to
stop work either as a result of old age or attainment of work period as
enshrined in the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Therefore,
this work will help workers to make adequate preparation in terms of savings,
setting an apartment or a home for themselves, investing in stocks or other
profit-oriented businesses so as to be happy when they are retired.
as school authority, would benefit from this study, because the content and
recommendations of this study would enable them to have immense information on
the perceived effect of fear on retirement and job performance. With this
study, employers at all levels of our educational system would be enlightened
on what it takes for workers to plan well for the rainy day in retirement.
The government will no doubt, have good policies regarding the retirement of
workers, especially the teachers who are the core educators of the nation’s
children and even adults. Government, especially the Ministry of Education,
will find this study, especially its recommendations very relevant as it will
help the employers of the teachers to formulate policies and create good
environment that will enable teachers to plan well and retire comfortably
without any recourse to fear of the unknown.
would also benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study because,
they would use the recommendations to counsel those who are afraid of
retirement, especially teachers who fear and have perceived anxiety due to
1.6 Limitation of the Study
this study, finance, time, sourcing of materials would be the constraints of
carrying out this work successfully and in due time. Also, the apathy of some
respondents would pose a constraint to the collection of opinions or
information from the selected subjects.
1.7 Definition of Terms
following terms were defined in this study:
The period at which one stops active participation in a paid employment
voluntarily and involuntarily.
Benefit: This refers to profit; advantage; good effect,
money provided by government as a right especially, in sickness or
unemployment; an event, especially, a theatrical performance to raise money for
some person or special purpose. Money or reward paid to a worker as a right by
the government or the employer.
of Job Performance: This is a term which refers to
anxiety and pressure on an individuals job performance in any organisation or
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