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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00006346

No of Pages: 93

No of Chapters: 5

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This research investigates the role of community banking in promoting rural development within the context of Nigeria, focusing specifically on community banks operating in Enugu State. The study adopts a quantitative description research approach to analyze the impact of community banks on the economic and social development of rural areas. The primary data source for this study is derived from structured questionnaires administered to both community bank officials and customers. The research population comprises 200 community bank officials and approximately 2,500 community bank customers. To ensure a representative sample, 50 bank staff members and 150 customers were selected using stratified sampling technique, resulting in a total of 200 respondents drawn from 10 community banks. The collected data are presented through frequency distribution and percentage tables, allowing for a comprehensive analysis of the findings. The results of the study reveal that Community Banks have made significant contributions to the economic and social development of rural areas in Nigeria. These contributions are evidenced by improved access to financial services, increased employment opportunities, and enhanced community infrastructure. One key recommendation arising from the study is that community banks should engage in comprehensive and intensive awareness campaigns within their catchment areas. These campaigns should emphasize the manifold benefits of banking institutions, particularly highlighting the positive impacts of community banks. This proactive approach is anticipated to enhance public awareness and understanding of the role that community banks play in driving rural development. In conclusion, the study underscores the crucial role of community banking in fostering rural development in Nigeria, specifically within the context of Enugu State. By employing quantitative analysis methods and utilizing primary data collected via questionnaires, the research provides valuable insights into the transformative potential of community banks. The study's findings have significant implications for policymakers, practitioners, and stakeholders in the Nigerian banking sector seeking to advance rural development initiatives through community banking strategies.


1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem 
1.3 Purpose of the Study 
1.4 Significance of the Study 
1.5 Research Hypothesis 
1.6   Scope of the Study 
1.7 Limitation of the Study 
1.8 Definition of the Terms: 

2.1  Definition of Concepts
2.1.1  The Concept of Development 
2.1.2 The Concept of Rural Development 
2.1.3 Concept of Community Banks 
2.1.4 Historical Background of Community 
2.2 Banking In Nigeria 
2.3 The Objectives of the Community Banks 
2.3.1 Inculcating Banking Habit 
2.3.2 Mobilization of Rural Savings 
2.3.3 Rural Transformation 
2.3.4 Allocation of Bank Loan and Advances 
2.3.5 Redection in Rural – Urban Drift 
2.3.6 The Government to the Grassroots. 
2.3.7 Manpower Development 
2.3.8 Investment 
2.3.9 Offer Deposits and Loan to the  Economy 
2.3.10 Contribute to the Progress of Rural Areas. 
2.3.11 And Facilitating Industrial Investment. 
2.3.12 Employment Opportunity 
2.4 Problem of Community Banks 
2.4.1 Absence of Infrastructural Facilities 
2.4.2 Manpower Shortage 
2.4.3 Low Level of Economic Activities 
2.4.4 Illiteracy of the Rural Dwellers 
2.4.5 Poor Incentives 
2.4.6 Inadequate Collateral 
2.4.7 Inadequate Security 
2.5 Prospects 

3.1 Area of Study 
3.2 Research Design 
3.2.1 Research Instrument 
3.2.2 Secondary Sources 
3.3 Population and Sample 
3.4 Sampling Techniques 
3.5 Questionnaire Design 
3.6 Questionnaire Distribution and Collection 
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 

4.1 Research Question 1
4.2 Research Question 2  
4.3 Research Question 3 
4.4 Research Question 4 
4.5 Research Question 5 
4.6 Research Question 6 
4.7 Research Hypothesis 
4.8  Summary 

5.1 Summary Of Findings 
5.2 Discussion 
5.3 Implication of the Study to Adult Education 
5.4 Conclusion 
5.5 Recommendations 
5.6 Suggestion for Further Studies 
Appendix  - Questionnaire


1.1 Background to the Study
In recent times much has been said as regards the neglect of the rural area in Nigeria in terms of the development and transformation facilities and services such as electricity. Pipe born water, good roads, hospital etc. as well as the provision of banking facilities, to help improve the standard of life and opportunities open to the rural dwellers. 
It has been argued that over years, paper development strategies and policies for the rural areas have not been pursued. This has led to a haphazard, not well defined and problem by – problem policy or rural development in Nigeria. The urban areas have been developed at the expense of the rural areas. Some people have equated development of urban areas to the development or rural areas; hence the pre-occupation was with the modernization of the urban centers. This type of the development effort was based on the notion that once the urban areas were modernized, the effect would, as a matter of cause tricks down to the rural areas. Therefore in pursuit of it, no distinction was made between the development of urban and rural areas. 
Given the lopsided nature of Nigeria development effort with its urban bias, many scholars, policy makers and government have contended that there is no way we can simultaneous develop and modernize urban and rural areas and that infact one of the obstacles to developments is the existence of undeveloped rural economy. 
Consequently, Mobogunji (1980) asserts that after many years of inadequate emphasis, during which pride of place was given to industrializations, it is now becoming generally recognized that rural development represents perhaps the only logical way of stimulating overall development. 
This has led to the pursuit of different policies and strategies for the transformation and development of the rural areas. One of such policies is the rural Banking Scheme embarked upon in July 1977. The banking industry especial the commercial banking sub-sector was given this challenge of extending banking services to the rural areas in particular and the Nigeria economy in general. The banking sector has been visualized as having the potentials for promoting economic development of any nation. 
Therefore Agu (1986) has pointed out that the mobilization of financial resources is the first step to resource mobilization for development purpose. But the mobilization of financial resources requires an institutional arrangement which encourage and mobilizes saving into productive investment. In this way, the establishment of bank branches in the rural areas and the manner in which they conduct their business activities and perform their development role are particularly important since according to Lipsay (1983) if they do not function monthly, the link between private saving and investment may be broken and the problem of finding fund for investment greatly intensified. 
Unfortunately, the above warning by Lipsay was not headed to by commercial banks in Nigeria. As such, inspite of the efforts made by the various government in the rural areas, the people could not fit into the conventional banking system. In order to secure even the modes of loans, they were required to fill several forms, obey certain rules and provide some form or guarantee or collateral. All in, rural people generally were made to feel lost in the modern environment of banking in the country. As a result developments at the grassroots level has been stalled. This was the rational for government continued search for a solution to monitize the rural economy.  
The only institutions that can be used as the magic wand are those financial houses, which are completely rural based, and not outposts of profit maximizing financial institutions, those institutions, which understand the rural people, are very willing to assist in solving their problems without necessarily attaching a lot of importance to profit maximization. 
In view of the above, the Federal Government introduced community banking as a strategy to facilitate rural development, as there is a general belief that commercial banks are not fared well in the realization of government objectives as rural development. 
Community Banks was conceptualized as a solution to the problem posed by the dearth of credit at a period when the directorate of Food, Road and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI) was making some attempts at rural regeneration. The question then was, how could the credit need be resolved at the rural level when formal conventional leading institution for reasons of procedure and cost could not effectively manage the situation? Given the usual attitude of Nigerians to government institutions and property, it was through their credit institution based on private initiatives and adopted to the rural culture, institutions and security stood a better chance of success. The community-banking scheme was thus born in the cradle of traditional peer pressure sanction and community ownership. 
At present, community-banking institutions is the only entrenched in the wheel of development to monetise the rural and sub-urban economy vis-visa rural development?

The state of the Nigerian rural and sub-urban areas has in recent years been a source of concern and anxiety to both the government and many interest groups. Although the different interest groups express their opinions in different ways, they share common feeling that the rural and sub-urban area of the country has been marginalized and thus perform below prudential expectations. Manufor (1996) explained that the neglect of the past created serious rural-urban economic differentials, which naturally gave rise to rural-urban migration. The fall in economic opportunities and the decline in the national economy have today created a situation whereby the rural disadvantaged have ended up as the urban-disadvantaged. 
Concomitantly, Nigeria as a developing country, desire very much, meaningful and rapid development of the rural through the establishment and mobilization of rural funds. It would be noted that one of the major dynamic economic and social progresses of any nation development is crucial to the economic, political and social growth of Nigeria. 
According to Babangida (1990), the shift of emphasis to grassroots development is a matter of necessity at the present stage of our development. It is well know that at least 75 percent of the country’s resources endowment abounds in the rural areas. 
According to Adekanya (1990), these problems, having informed the establishment of community banks should serve as a useful guide for the clearer conceptualization of the nature, the structure and functions of the community banks in order to guarantee more effective and efficient services to the local people. 
It is on the basis of these accepted facts that these studies will stir to evaluate the rolls of community banks. Again, it behaves this study to access to what extent community banks have helped in inculcating banking habits among rural dwellers. 

Any policy made with foresight has apprehensive objective that it tends to pursue. It is the purpose of this study therefore to: 
1. Accretion the objectives and functions of community banks.
2. Determine how much of disciplined banking habit they have uncalculated among the masses of low-income workers especially those of the rural area. 
3. The study will also look at the specific roles community banks play in the development of the rural communities in which they are located. 
4. It will also determine if customers are satisfied with the services they received from community banks presently. 
5. It also behaves this study to find out the problems and prospects of community banks. 

This study will help in apprising the roles of community banks in Nigeria rural development taking into cognizance the expected roles and functions that led to their establishment. The study will enable us to know how community banks have helped in inculcating banking habits among rural populace. 
Information obtained from this study will service as a very useful guide to community leaders seeking to set up community banks in their area. 
Community banking is still a relatively new system in Nigeria; very few literatures exist on this very importance area. Hence, this study will add to the existing stock of information available on this subject. 
Finally, it hoped that the recommendation and suggestions would help both Community Bank Staff, Community Development Association and owners of the National Broad of Community Bank is that they realize the laudable objectives for which they were established. 

Null Hypothesis Ho:     Community banking has resulted in the modification to capital structure for rural development in Nigeria. 
Alternate Hypothesis Hi: Community banking has not resulted in the modification of capital structure for rural development in Nigeria. 
Null Hypothesis Ho: Community Banking has contributed to the   economic/social development of rural areas in Nigeria. 
Alternate Hypothesis Hi: Community Bank has not contributed to the economic/social development of rural areas in Nigeria. 

The scope of this research study will be limited to ten community banks in Enugu State. Most community banks in Nigeria have the same method of operations; it is believed that the needs of the researcher would still be met from the study of the samples. 
Perhaps, one should hasten to observe that a research of this nature should have covered very many community banks throughout Enugu State  to be very conclusive but owing to the above constraints. This research covers only the community which are: 
1. Ogigo Community Bank 
2. Nsukka Township Community Bank 
3. Ehalumoma Community Bank 
4. Ogui Urban Community Bank 
5. Abakpa Community Bank 
6. Aku – Diewa Community Bank 
7. Orie orba Community Bank 
8. Umuozzi Community Bank 
9. Emene Community Bank 
10. United Uwani Community Bank 

As a result of financial constraints like time, proximity and other environmental factors which limits the researcher within a definite place. Time, which was not on the researcher’s favour, was not sufficient to gather much data as need, analyses the data adequately and of course do other necessary things that would have improved the equality of the research. 
Financial constraints were another major factor that constituted some hindrances for making a thorough and painstaking research and analysis almost impossible. Inadequacies or simple and straightforward statistical tools for dept analyzing was limited provided.
Also getting the respondents to complete the questionnaire posed another problem since a good number of them complain of lack of time as a result of the pressure of work. 

This is the only institution that can be used as the magic wand and also financial houses, which are computably rural, based. Their aims are not only on profits maximizing. 
Community bank understands the problems without necessary and are also willing to assist in solving their problems without necessary attaching a lot or importance to profit maximization. 

Development is a process associated with a continuous improvement in the capacity of the people and their society to control and manipulate their physical environment as well as themselves for their own benefit and those of other humanity. Development is a phenomenon in which the individual and society interact with their own betterment and that of humanity.  
Rural development is a process by which the people in a small community first through discussion define their goals and objectives, the plan and act together to satisfy them. Rural development is a broad based re-organization and mobilization of the rural mass for this daily task of their lives and with changes. 

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