This project is aimed at the effect of communication on
organizational performance, communication subsist and impact upon everything
that is, an event or occurrence worth nothing. It is this pervasiveness of
communication that has, with the development of man, animal and the elements
developed into a major area of study as well as formidable social force. It is
an every day thing because it pervades our very existence.
Moreover, survey method is used in the design of the study and
questionnaire, personal interview, personal observation, official record etc
were used to gather primary and secondary data which were used to analyze using
statistical technique like simple percentage. The population includes both
senior and junior staff of Nnewi North Local Government area secretariat.
Random sampling methods were adopted to elicit the responses. The methods used
in disseminating information, the effect of such information on staff, how
management takes suggestions from others as it relates to organizational
policies were also discussed. However, the result of the survey revealed that
the organization agrees that communication is imperative in the successful
operation of management. In the cause of the research there were some
recommendations made. And one of these recommendations was that the way
communication process should be use by the members of the staff.
Title page i
Certification page ii
Table of contents viii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the
1.2 Statements of the
1.3 Objectives of the
1.4 Research questions 12
1.5 Scope of the study 13
1.6 Significance of the
1.7 Definition of terms
Conception of communication 16
Types of communication 24
Purpose of communication 25
Communication process 29
Communication barriers 32
Direction of Communication 35
Review of related studies 39
Theoretical frame work 42
2.10 The summary of literature review 43
3.1 Research design 45
3.2 Area of study 46
3.3 Population of study 46
3.4 Sample and sampling technique 46
3.5 Method of data collection 47
3.6 Method of data analysis 47
Data presentation and
discussion of finding
data presentation and Analysis 48
Analysis of Demographic data 49
Discussion of findings 57
Summary, conclusion and
Summary of findings 60
Suggestion for further studies 67
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
needs to communicate with those around him to share experience, jokes,
furniture, hopes and ideas. By the time we read our teens, we probably take the
ability to communicate for granted as merely doing what comes naturally.
Whether we realize it or not, each of us has learn about language and
communication by the time we become teenagers. In early childhood, we learnt
how to write and interprete numbers and digrames. We even come to understand
the silent language of communication expressed in false gestures and body
movement which is the body language of non verbal communication. This army of
skills has helped us to be active members of the family, school, work group and
society at large.
Communication occurs when a person
transmits meaning understanding message to another person or group. Having
known this, it is of require goo communication since it is regarded as the foundation
upon which an organization system must be developed and maintained to get an
idea passed to others in order to bring intended performance. Without the
process of communication the various part of organization would not be bound
together and the organization would not exist. In other to be successful, the
organization needs people who can communicate effectively and efficiency.
Communication is very important tool in every organization.
John MP Fiffner saw communication as a
galaxy of connotation each of which is valuable and useful for its particular
context. It is indeed common that the mere mention of the world communication
conjure s pictures of the letters, telegram, radio, cable, telephone etc. in
the mind of the people in the street. The word communication came from a Latin
word “communication”, meaning to share. It is a way of sharing ideas, thought,
feeling, message or information by speech, visual signals writing or behaviour.
According to Lee (2011) without the
means, the capacity and the will to communicate, what we knew as business government
and community activities could not be but is not enough for people to talk with
each other, they need to know how to talk with others too. The first executive
fixation according to Bernard (1990) is to maintain a system of communication.
It is only when people have come to know others work, play or study that they are
prepared to open up and to trust others with their secrets communication is the
meaningful exchange of information between two or more living creatures, hence
animal language. It can be act by which human pass information, knowledge etc.
According to Uzozie Raphael (1992 : pg
10) he says that communication is all the possible method of conveying or
passing information, idea, feeling etc from one source to another, in a
systematic way (sentence formation ways) using channel which are recognized and
accepted by all the participant in the communication gap.
Uwadiegwu (2010 : pg 155) defines
communication as a process of giving peoples information through the means of
previews agreed symbols, signs, signals, or patterns.
Mbiti (1987) sees communication as the
transfer of information from one person to the other, information sent out all
supposed to be understood and react to it with the desired response. in the
same vein, Graham et al (1992) state that communication must include facts,
intention and attitude. The chief purpose of communication is to make the
receiver of the message to understand what is in the mind of the sender.
Therefore, it is no exaggeration to assert that communication is playing
operation of our business. We have more people to inform more people to listen
to and more people to help us solve our problem and more things to talk about.
Its function is the means by which social inputs are fed into social system or
organization, the means by which behaviour is modified, changed is effected,
information is made productive and goal are achieved, be it in business, the
military, the government etc. very organization is get up to obtain same
defined objective. Some business organization like Nnewi North Local Government
Area Secretariat is set up to improve the standard of education and render
social service. The co-operative in this case is not that of making profit.
However, the objective of any
organization has been achieved through the instrumentality of individual
persons who form the basic nucleus of any organization. The people have to be
managed effectively and efficiently in order to ensure their readiness to perform
for the attainment of goals and objective of organization.
“Management” is defined by Denyer (1972:
pg 46) is concerted with the direction and control of an enterprise and
involves planning and direction of the work of other. These managerial functions
cannot successfully carry out in the absence of communication is what all
managers do. It breeds life into planning, organizing, motivating, controlling
and budgeting. It is the way we get meaningful work accomplished by
coordinating the effort of their individual and groups.
Communication as defined by Brown (1950:pg
16) is the process of transmitting ideas or thought from one person to another
for the purpose of creating understanding in the thinking of the person
receiving the communication. It is also the act of imparting information or the
mutual exchange of information and understanding by the use of symbols,
language and signs. The goals of any communication his either to change behaviours,
get actions, get information or to persuade and ensure understanding.
Drucker (1954:pg 12) while discussing
the importance of communication said: The managers has a specific tool which is
information. He does not handle people, he motivate, guides, organize people to
do their own work and to do this, is the spoken and written word or the
language of numbers. No matter whether the managers job is engine accounting,
legislating or selling, his effectiveness depends on his ability caused by the
lack of effective communication are among the greatest problem managers faces
in today’s competitive business world. Skill are needed to get ideas and
thoughts across other people as well as skill in finding out what other people are
after, a kind of impulse feeling. Drucker assertion implies that communication
are needed to convey information necessary for on going operation and that
communication can have an effect on the attitude of people in the organization
and consequently on the general performance of the organization.
Managers spend a lot of their time in
order to co-ordinate human and physical resources of an organization into
effective efficient and co-ordinate work unit. It is only through this, the
human and material elements of an organization can be achieved.
As average manager spend between 80 to
95 percent of his time communicating in one form or the other, interviewing applicants
for position, holding meeting, writing letters, memos and repots, telephoning clients,
listening and reading. Relevant information, facts, feeling and ideas must be
communicated within an organization before any organizational decision can be
made. Communication in recent years has been regarded as a managerial function
because of its indispensable important in any organization coupled with the
fact that it has been realized that communication is need in born but has to e
learnt and developed along line.
Language, which is deemed the most
important tools of communication. Researchers have proved that there are more
than 280 languages in Nigeria. It was also observed that the organization Nnewi
North Local Government Area Secretariat which serves as a study for this
research have worker from different ethnic groups with different languages,
different social and cultural backgrounds. This shows that effective
communication in any organization cannot be predicted accurately. As S.I
Hayakawa (1979:pg 1) said “the meaning of words are not in the word”. They are
in its and no word ever has exactly the meaning.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Misunderstanding and distrust caused
by lack of effective communication are among the greatest problems Nigerian
managers face today’s competitive business world. This is why the attention of
many organization today and focused on the task of improving communication.
List of obstacles of effective communication is almost unless each failure can
mean serious losses, errors, delays, bottlenecks and misunderstanding.
One need not to emphasize on the simple
fact that communication is the way management gets it job done. The ability to
communicate is the most important of all the skill a manager must develop and
when the most valuable ability administration may exercise.
It is estimated that close to 70
percent of our communication efforts are likely to be misunderstood thereby any
human society. There are several reason for these, some of the reasons include
lack of clarity of the message, receiver’s perception of the sender and the
sender’s bias regarding the message. Other may be due to lack of interest in
the message, poor listening and inability to concentrate.
Therefore, it becomes imperative to
undertake a study on how communication is handled coupled with communication
problem in the organization.
the light of this, the following formats are the statement of problems. In what
ways have the use of effective communication in Nnewi North Local Government
Areas Secretariat contributed to the achievement of its objectives?
the achievement of the objectives been encumbered due to lack of proper
process of communication does the management of the organization adopt in
passing down their message?
this process been suitable enough to get done at when expected or has it been a
hindrance to work progress?
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
objectives of this study are:
1. To examine whether there is
resultant effects of communication gap in Nnewi North Local Government Area
2. To find out the process and
identify barriers in communication.
3. To find out the most appropriate
communication method for better organizational performance.
4. To investigate whether there is
any communication gap between the employees and the management.
1. Is there any resultant effects
of communication gap in Nnwei North Local Government Area Secretariat?
2. Do communication gap exist
between the employees and the management?
3. Is there any appropriate
communication method for better organizational performance?
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
research topic limited its study to Nnwei north local government area
secretariat to communication gap in respect to its effect on organization
performance with special attention. Nnwei north local government area secretariat
comprises of female and male staff who are involved in various work. There are
also student who are doing industrial training. The study also covers the role
of communication in organizational mobilization in Nnewi north local government
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
has remained an essential and an indispensable aspect of any organization as
far as administration and management are concerned. Although most managers do
not share the same view, however it is imperative that I spot out any gap in
communication and to find a good solution to such problems. The worked will
also focus on the task of providing a milieu for improving communication in
Nnwei north local government area secretariat or government owned, individual association
infact, every human society will benefit immensely from this study. Finally, it
is expected to provide a basis which further research work covered be conducted
in future. This study will highlight the important of communication as a
vehicle organizational mobilization in a transition era.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
COMMUNICATION: The act of impacting information or the
mutual exchange of information and understanding by the use of symbols language
and signs. It is a social transaction which involves getting ones ideas across
in a way a person can be understand by the other person of whom the message is
INFORMATION: Information knowledge, items of
MOTIVATION; It is a force that influence human
behaviour. In other word, it is a force that drives individual towards
communication or acting in a particular way.
PUBLIC: A section of the community grouped because of a
common interest or activity. It can also refer to employee and the group of
people, the organization conduct business with.
ORGANISATION: A business concern united and
constructed for a particular end.
FEEDBACK: Process of bringing a response to the original
speaker/sender or source. It is the ultimate judge of effectiveness of
Break, incompleteness and unwholesome.
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