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Product Code: 00008131

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The main aim of this study is to produce and access the nutrients, Phytochemicals and sensory attributes of biscuits made from cassava and groundnut paste blends. The raw materials (yellow-fleshed cassava roots and groundnut were processed separately and blended at different proportions. The blends were; 100% commercial wheat flour, 100% yellow-fleshed cassava flour, 50% yellow-fleshed cassava: 50% groundnut paste, 60% yellow-fleshed cassava flour: 40% groundnut paste, 40% yellow-fleshed cassava flour: 60% groundnut paste. The biscuits were produced using standard methods. The products were then subjected to chemical (proximate, vitamins, minerals, Phytochemicals) and sensory analysis using standard methods too. The biscuits samples had proximate composition ranges of its components. Moisture content ranged from 9.14-10.62%, crude protein ranged from 6.77-16.36%, fat content ranged from 2.68-12.63%, crude fiber also had a range from 1.34-2.97%, ash content ranged from 1.77-2.42%, carbohydrate was shown to range from 57.04-76.64% and the energy content ranged from 357-408kcal. The vitamin content of the biscuits analyzed were; bet-carotene (1.12-300.15µg/100g), vitamin B1 (0.10-1.27mg/100g), vitamin B3 (0.53-14.03mg/100g), and vitamin C (1.97-5.0). Various minerals were analyzed and they include; calcium (1.37-12.92mg/100g), magnesium ( 8.97-32.06mg/100g), phosphorus ( 5.02-29.97mg/100g), sodium (1.06-9.23mg/100g), potassium (20.82-47.54mg/100g), iron (1.85-2.55mg/100g), zinc (0.23-2.32mg/100g), copper (0.02-0.31mg/100g), and selenium (0.02-0.22mg/100g). The Phytochemicals composition of the biscuits ranged from 0.53-0.63mg/100g saponin, 0.12-0.69mg/100g phenol, 0.09-0.53mg/100g tannins, 0.77-33.31mg/100g flavonoids, 0.11-2.04mg/100g oxalate and 0.26-0.58mg/100g cyanide. The sensory evaluation results showed that all the biscuit samples had high rating for all evaluated attributes. The 60% yellow-fleshed cassava flour: 40% groundnut paste and 40% yellow-fleshed cassava flour: 60% groundnut paste compared favorably with the control (100% commercial wheat flour). However, the biscuits from the other substitution levels were also generally acceptable. The study concluded that biscuits made from cassava and groundnut paste blends could serve as a good source of protein for individuals with protein energy malnutrition, alternative to wheat based biscuits. Hence, an alternate to wheat-based biscuits for people with celiac disease and supply appropriate nutrients for normal body function.


TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                        i

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                                ii

DEDICATION                                                                                                                      iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                                                   iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                     v

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                                ix

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                                              x

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                           xi




1.1         Background of the study                                                                                      1

1.2         Statement of problem                                                                                         3

1.3       Objectives of the study                                                                                               3

1.3.1    General objective of the study                                                                                    3

1.3.2    The specific objectives of the study includes                                                             4

1.4       Significance of the study                                                                                            4



2.1       Overview of malnutrition                                                                                           6

2.1.1    Food enrichment and fortification                                                                              7

2.1.2   Flour blends and its advantages                                                                                   8

2.1.3   Overview of biscuit                                                                                                    9

2.1.4    Preparation of biscuits                                                                                                            10

2.2       Cassava                                                                                                                       11

2.2.1.    Origin of cassava                                                                                                       12       

2.2.2   Description of cassava                                                                                                13

2.2.3   Nutritional   value of cassava root                                                                              14

2.2.4   Health benefits of cassava                                                                                          14

2.2.5   Utilization of cassava root                                                                                          15

2.3       Groundnut                                                                                                                   16

2.3.1    Origin and description groundnut                                                                               16

2.3.2   Nutritional composition of groundnut                                                                        17 Carbohydrate                                                                                                              17   Protein                                                                                                                         17 Lipids                                                                                                                          18   Vitamins                                                                                                                      19 Minerals                                                                                                                      21

2.3.3   Health benefits of groundnut                                                                                      23

2.3.4   Bioactive compounds in groundnut                                                                            24

2.3.5   Antinutrient in groundnut                                                                                       25

2.4       Biscuit production process                                                                                         25

2.4.1   Functions of baking                                                                                                    26

2.4.2   Baking Principle                                                                                                         28

2.5       Sensory evaluation                                                                                                     28


CHAPTER 3                       


3.1      Study design                                                                                                               30

3.2       Raw materials collection                                                                                            30

3.3       Sample Preparation                                                                                                    30

3.3.1  Preparation of cassava flour                                                                                         30

3.3.2.   Preparation of groundnut paste                                                                                              32

3.3.3    Formation of flour blends                                                                                           33

3.4       Biscuits production                                                                                                     34      

3.5.      Proximate analysis                                                                                                      34

3.5.1.   Moisture content determination                                                                                 34

3.5.2    Ash content determination                                                                                         35

3.5.3    Crude fiber determination                                                                                          35

3.5.4   Fat content determination                                                                                          36

3.5.5.   Protein determination                                                                                                 37

3.5.6    Carbohydrate determination                                                                                       38

3.5.7    Determination of energy                                                                                             39

3.6       Vitamin determination                                                                                               39

3.6.1    Determination of beta-carotene                                                                                  39

3.6.2    Determination of thiamine (vitamin B1)                                                                     40

3.6.3    Determination of Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)                                                             40

3.7       Mineral Determination                                                                                               41

3.7.1.   Determination of Calcium and Magnesium                                                               42

3.7.2.   Determination of Phosphorus                                                                                     43

3.7.3.   Determination of Sodium and Potassium                                                                   43

3.7.4    Determination of Heavy Metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Selenium)                                           44

3.8       Phytochemical Determination                                                                                    45

3.8.1    Determination of Tannis                                                                                             45

3.8.2    Determination of Oxalate                                                                                           45

3.8.3    Determination of Flavonoid Content                                                                          47

3.8.4    Determination of Saponin                                                                                          47

3.8.6   Determination of Phenols                                                                                           48

3.8.7   Determination of Cyanogenic Glucoside                                                                   48

3.9       Sensory Evaluation                                                                                                     49

3.10    Statistical Analysis                                                                                                     49       



4.1 Energy and Proximate Composition of Biscuit made from Cassava Flour and

        groundnut Paste   Blends                                                                                                            50

4.2 Vitamin Content of the Biscuit Sample made from Cassava Flour and

        Groundnut Paste Blends                                                                                                 55

4.3 Mineral Content 0f the Biscuit Sample made from Cassava Flour and

      Groundnut Paste Blends                                                                                                   58

4.4  Phyto-chemical composition of the biscuit sample made from cassava

     flour and  groundnut paste blends                                                                                     63


4.5 Sensory Attributes of the Biscuit Sample Developed from Yellow-Fleshed Cassava

      Flour and  Groundnut Paste Blends                                                                                  67




5.1   Conclusion                                                                                                                      70

5.2   Recommendations                                                                                                          71


REFERENCES                                                                                                                     72

Appendix I                                                                                                                             79

Appendix II                                                                                                                           81







Table 4.1         Proximate Composition of the biscuit samples                           52

Table 4.2         Vitamin Composition of the biscuit samples                              56

Table 4.3         Mineral composition of the biscuit samples                                60

Table 4.4         Phyto-chemical composition of biscuit samples                         65

Table 4.5         Sensory attribute of the biscuit samples                                      68










Figure 3.1       A flowchart for yellow-fleshed cassava flour production                                    31

Figure 3.2       A flowchart for groundnut paste production                                                  32










In Nigeria, under nutrition is a major factor of inadequate intake of protein, energy and micronutrients which is as a result of disease, poverty, ignorance, underutilization of indigenous crops and high cost of food (Nwaibe, 2017). Protein- energy malnutrition (PEM) is a form of under nutrition caused as a result of insufficient protein and calorie intake. PEM has continued to be of public health important in developing countries (especially in Nigeria) and is associated with about 50 – 60% of under-five children mortality. Recently, strategies have been mapped out to help reduce the incidence and severity of PEM in Nigeria through supplementation and fortification (Ubesie and Ibeziakor, 2012).  Normally, wheat has been the major and most suitable grain flour ideal for baking confectionaries (biscuits, cake, chips, bread etc) in bakery industry, because of its unique properties for its gluten proteins to form a visco-elastic network when mixed with water (Haruna et al., 2017). But confectionaries produce from wheat flour are becoming very expensive and inaccessible especially to rural dwellers and low-socio economic individuals. Wheat flour produce also, have implicated cases of gluten-related disorders like celiac disease. Celiac disease is an immune-mediated entheropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Gluten is a complex mixture of storage protein in wheat. As a result, these drawbacks have prompted researchers to try out other indigenous cereals that have been under-utilized as alternative for confectionaries production (Nwaibe, 2017).  More so, Ogunjobi and Ogunwolu (2010) reported that as a result of the high cost of wheat in Nigeria , other  flour and starch crop were sourced out from locally available tropical crops such as root crops (cassava, sweet potato, yam) and cereals(rice, maize, millet, sorghum) to replace wheat flour. However, cassava was chosen among these crops, to partially or completely replace wheat in bakery, due to its high yield and low cost production. Amalaha, (2012) in his report said that, the use of cassava has been a major research interest in resent time in Nigeria.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta)   is a nutty-flavored, starchy root vegetable or tuber crop and highly mycotrophic plant widely cultivated in most country under various agro ecosystems. It is the source of low cost carbohydrate in south-east and south-west Nigeria. And also an important food crop for about 500 million people in the world which provides more than 50 % of the average daily caloric intake and (Fokom et al., 2019). The most commonly consumed part of cassava is the root, which is very versatile.  Its root contains high amount of potassium and vitamin C and other minerals and vitamin (except vitamin B12). However, most nutrients are lost during processing (especially vitamin C) (Amalaha, 2012). Nevertheless, these methods of processing and preparation can drastically reduce the nutrient content of cassava and owing to the fact that it contains high amount of cyanide which is a toxic compound in cassava that can be poisonous when eaten raw. However, these chemical compounds can be reduced to the minimum acceptable quantity by cooking, fermentation, drying, soaking, peeling etc, in other to make the cassava palatable and safe for consumption (Elliott, 2017). Moreover, as a result of cassava being deficient in some other nutrients, there is a need for it to be complemented with some other nutrient rich foods, so as to help tackle the problem of protein energy malnutrition. Also, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) are known to be highly nutrient dense and supply both macro and micro nutrients. It is in the light of this, that this research work is designed to develop biscuits from cassava flour and groundnut paste blends.                  



Recently increasing urbanization in African countries has led to changes in food habits and preferences of the population towards convenience ready-to eat foods such as biscuits (Ogunwolu et al., 2010). Aside satisfaction of hunger and providing the nutrients required by the body, these convenience foods should also prevent nutrition-related diseases and improve physical and mental well-being of the consumers.  Many developing countries such as Nigeria has became heavily dependent on staple foods for (wheat) which they import and for these conditions local production is poor or non-existent and under-utilized(Haruna et al., 2017). And this has led to rapid growth and high cost of wheat importation in Nigeria (Lu et al., 2020). However, wheat contains gluten protein which is not ideal for people with gluten-related disorders such as celiac disease which can cause broad range of symptoms including; digestive problems, skin rashes, weight loss, and headache (Hill and Warwick, 2019). Also the principle ingredients for producing these products are always high in carbohydrate (simple sugars) but low in protein and micronutrients.

Therefore, there is a need to bring into light, products which are supplemented with protein rich sources, to tackle malnutrition and gluten related disorders (celiac disease).


1.3.1.   General objective of the study

The general objectives of this study are to evaluate the chemical and sensory properties of biscuits made from cassava flour and groundnut paste blends.

1.3.2.   The specific objectives of the study includes;

i) production of biscuit from cassava flour and groundnut paste blends.

ii) determination of the proximate composition (moisture, crude protein, carbohydrate fiber, fat and ash) of the biscuit.

iii) evaluation of the mineral content (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, and Selenium) of the biscuit.

iv) determination of the vitamin content (beta-carotene, vitamin  C, BB3) of the biscuit.

v) evaluation of Phytochemicals (flavonoids, phenols, tannins, saponin, oxalate and cyanide) content of the biscuit.

vi)  evaluation of the sensory properties (taste, appearance, aroma, mouth-feel and general acceptability) of the biscuit.


One of the most popular uses of cassava flour is to replace wheat flour for bakery applications because of the rapid growth and high cost of wheat importation in Nigeria and also, cassava flour has been recorded to have special quality attributes similar to wheat flour and thus, deficient in gluten (Lu  et al., 2020). Complete avoidance of gluten enables the intestine to heal, and the nutritional deficiencies and other symptoms to resolve. A strict adherence to gluten-free diet also reduces the risk of developing many of the serious long-term complications related to untreated celiac disease (Jnawali et al., 2016).

Therefore this work will lessen Nigerian total dependence on imported wheat, as the data will serve as a guide to food industries to use cassava as an alternate to wheat and also help tackle problems of protein energy malnutrition because of its supplementation with groundnut paste.  Nutritionists, dietitians, entrepreneurs, production companies can use the information to develop new products and foods for individuals.  The information can be incorporated for use in Nigerian food composition data and Ministry of Health can use the information obtained to provide evidence on the feasibility of micronutrient fortification and nutrient supplementation using locally available foods transformed into composite flours for production of variety of products.  Thereby making it possible for this approach to be incorporated into the food based strategies targeted at combating malnutrition and tackling problems associated with wheat consumption (Celiac disease) through nutrients made readily available in the new product (biscuit).


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