to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Scope of the Study
Operational Definition of Terms
Significance of the Study
OF RELATED LITERATURE
and Nature of Attitude
The Place of ICT in the Teaching of
Teachers’ Attitude and ICT
Teachers Characteristics and Attitude to
Use of ICT for Teaching English Language
Teachers’ ICT Literacy
Teachers’ ICT Utilization in the
Appraisal of the Literature Reviewed
Population, Sample and Sampling
Procedure for Data Collection
Data Analysis Techniques
DATA ANALYSES AND
of Research Questions
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion on Research Findings
Findings on Teachers’ Attitude to the
use of ICT
Findings on the
Influence of Gender on Secondary School Teachers’ Attitude to
the use of ICT
Unqualified English Language Teachers’ Attitude to the Use of
ICT for Teaching
Experienced and More Experienced English Language
Teachers’ Attitude to the Use of ICT for
Suggestions for Further Studies
Background to the Study
In the current era, information spreads
rapidly and this makes it easy to access the information. Development of
information technologies surely has a great contribution on this. Information
technologies making a rapid progress especially at the end of twentieth century
started to assert itself in educational field in addition to all fields (Sahin &
Akeay, 2011). Integration of technology with lectures has become inevitable for
effective training. It became important for educators to use information
technologies whose effects started to be seen especially on educational
training activities applied in educational environment and structure of
educational system, effectively. In this respect, it is important for educators
to adopt technology, to follow closely and to exhibit a positive attitude
towards the use of technology in the classroom. Therefore, to reveal the
attitudes of educators towards educational technologies in education is
important and necessary in terms of ensuring required conditions for efficient
use of new technologies in education (Pala, 2006).
English language is a
West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is
now a global lingua franca. Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes
that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia
(Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian
languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other
Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic Language), as well as
by Latin and French (Finkenstaedt, Thomas, Dieter & Wolff, 1973). English
has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of
English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by
Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English. Middle English
began in the late 11th century with the Norman Conquest of England and was a
period in which the language was influenced by French (Crystal 2003). Early
Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the
printing press to London, the printing of the King James Bible and the start of
the Great Vowel Shift (“How English evolved into global language.” BBC. 20
December, 2010). Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire, modern
English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries. Through
all types of printed and electronic media and spurred by the emergence of the
United States as a global superpower, English has become the leading language
of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and
professional contexts such as science, navigation and law. It is the most
widely learned second language and is either the official language or one of
the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states. There are more people who
have learned it as a second language than there are native speakers. English is
the most commonly spoken language in the United Kingdom, the United States,
Canada, Australia, Ireland and New Zealand, and it is widely spoken in some
areas of the Caribbean, Africa and South Asia (Crystal 2003).
A teacher (also called
a school teacher or, in some contexts, an educator) is a person who helps
others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally, the role of
teacher may be taken on by anyone (e.g. when showing a colleague how to perform
a specific task). In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be
carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family (homeschooling),
rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college. Some other
professions may involve a significant amount of teaching (e.g. youth worker,
pastor). In most countries, formal teaching of students is usually carried out
by paid professional teachers.
Gender refers to the
characteristics of being either a man or woman, as members of a social group.
Similarly, Lewey (2004) conceived gender as a state or characteristics of being
either masculine or feminine in nature. It is a socio-psychological concept
used to describe the culture and social roles different societies of the world
ascribe to male and female folks to depict the differences between them. The
anatomical differences are apparent at once. Given the opportunity, a woman can
succeed in most activities as well as a man (Llewellyn-Jones, 2005). He added
that although a woman tends to have less developed muscles than a man, she can
equal him in physical and mental stamina and is able to perform jobs which have
been reserved for men in the past. Elumelu (2009) in a study on the reading
attitudes of college of education students observed that there were no significant
differences between the reading attitudes of male and female students.
Conversely, Idorenyin and Monday (2007) observed that at high school level,
boys score higher than girls in Mathematics, Science and Social Sciences, while
girls performed better than boys in reading, writing, music and literature. But
some scholars and researchers like Agbaje (2004) and Amadi (2010) have
nevertheless argued that gender cannot be regarded as a serious determining
factor to effective and efficient teaching in the classroom.
Fortunari argue that
the application of ICT in class helps teachers to arouse student’s motivation
and interest to improve their English skills achievement. Many researches
showed that the use of ICT plays a decisive role in the teaching and learning
activities. Moreover, Rahimi, Ebrahimi and Eskandari (2013) opined that the
application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has enhanced
English teaching. Numerous studies have been conducted to measure the
effectiveness of learning by using internet technology. Today, the internet
which can be access by millions of computers has an important role in the
education world. Internet is also applied widely in English language learning
around the world. The use of internet in teaching English as a foreign language
has many benefits (Aydin, 2007). In other words, the application of ICT like
internet facilitates teacher’s ability to teach course material in the
classroom. Internet helps teachers to access various websites that provide a
wide range of subject matter in accordance with the objectives of the
The use of ICT plays a
necessary role in education (Zarghami, 2016). The application of ICT in the
classroom enables teachers to teach lessons with authentic materials so that
learning process in the classroom will be more of attractive and full of fun.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) helps teachers improve the
quality of the learning process. They depend on no textbook, because ICT
provides teachers with audio recordings, films and learning materials to
promote the students’ learning achievement. In addition, ICT enables teachers
to search for teaching materials related to the subject matter. Advancement of
ICT has changed all aspects of human life. It has a medium and as a source of
learning has influenced education as a means of science and technology
development. Therefore, teachers should understand and implement the ICT which
has brought a change in the paradigm of education (Labbas & Shaban, 2013). According
to Sudiran (2011), there are some models to use internet as learning in English
media at schools. The presence of the internet in education brings a great
advantage in the learning process. Not only does internet serve as a source of
information but it also improves students’ motivation in class. It is important
for teachers to use it as a source of information to support their career.
Nigeria like other
developing countries is still in the early stage of integrating ICT in teaching
and learning process in the education sector. Though it is limited by a number
of barriers, there are many factors influencing the use of ICT to make teaching
and learning effective in Secondary Schools in Nigeria. The use of ICT in the
classroom teaching and learning is very important for it provides opportunities
for teachers and students to operate, store, retrieve information, encourage
independent and active learning and self-responsibility for learning such as
distance learning, motivate teachers and students to continue using learning
outside school hours. It also helps teachers plan to prepare lessons and design
materials such as course content delivery, instructional material and
facilitate sharing of resources and advice.
This versatile instrument has the capability not only of engaging
students in instructional activities to increase their learning but of helping
them to solve complex problems to enhance their cognitive skills (Jonnasem &
The purpose of this
project is to share with teachers in public schools the findings of the study
conducted to investigate the level of ICT use among English teachers for
teaching in secondary school in Ilorin. Also, this study seeks to investigate
the attitudes of teachers towards the use of ICT for education purposes. An
overview of the research in the value of using ICTs in teaching and learning
process proved that the utilization of ICT has had a major influence on the
teaching and learning process. In other words, ICTs has proved to be an effective
tools for educational purpose, although it has extend and transformed the way
students learn and teachers teach. The literature on attitudes is abundant in
sociolinguistics but scarcer in the specific area of teachers’ attitudes towards
learning and teaching. In recent years, there have been ever increasing number
of studies into the possible reasons for the lack of impact of ICT in improving
educational results (Somekh, 2004), the different aspects which could be
influential such as self-efficiency of teacher’s own computer skills
(Paraskeva, Bouta & Papagianni, 2008).
Communication Technology (ICT) includes computers, the internet, and electronics
delivery systems such as radios, televisions, and projectors among others, and
is widely used in today’s education field. Kent and Facer (2004) indicated that
school is an important environment in which students participate in a wide
range of computer activities, while the home serves as a complementary site for
regular engagement in a narrower set of computer activities. Increasingly, ICT is
being applied successfully in instruction, learning, and assessment. ICT is considered
a powerful tool for educational change and reform. A number of previous studies
have shown that an appropriate use of ICT can raise educational quality and
connect learning to real-life situations (Lowther, et al. 2008; Weert & Tatnall
2005). As Weert and Tatnall (2005) have pointed out, learning is an ongoing
lifelong activity where learners change their expectations by seeking
knowledge, which departs from traditional approaches. As time goes by, they
will have to expect and be willing to seek out new sources of knowledge. Skills
in using ICT will be an indispensable prerequisite for these learners. ICT tends
to expand access to education. Through ICT, learning can occur any time and
anywhere. Online course materials, for example, can be accessible 24 hours a
day, seven days a week. Teleconferencing classrooms allow both learner and
teacher to interact simultaneously with ease and convenience.
Based on ICT, learning
and teaching no longer depend exclusively on printed materials. Multiple
resources are abundant on the Internet, and knowledge can be acquired through
video clips, audio sounds, visual presentation and so on. Current research has
indicated that ICT assists in transforming a teaching environment into a
learner-centered one (Castro Sánchez & Alemán, 2011). Since learners are
actively involved in the learning processes in ICT classrooms, they are
authorized by the teacher to make decisions, plans, and so forth (Lu, Hou &
Huang 2010). ICT therefore provides both learners and instructors with more
educational affordances and possibilities
of the Problem
There have been policies
on the use of ICT for basic education in Nigeria and so many projects on the
use of computer in government Secondary Schools in Nigeria, but unfortunately,
the project did not really take off beyond the distribution and installation of
personal computers (Okebukola, 1997; cited by Aduwa Ogiegbean & Iyamu,
2005). Okebukola (1997) then concludes that the computer is not part of
classroom technology in more than 90 percent of Nigeria public schools. This
implies that the chalkboard and textbooks continue to dominate classroom
activities in most Nigeria Secondary Schools. Okwudishu (2005) discovered that
unavailability of some ICT components in schools hampers teachers’ use of ICT.
Lack of adequate search skills and of access points in the schools were
reported as factors inhibiting the use of the internet by Secondary Schools
(Kaku, 2005).The results of studies suggest benefiting modern and up-to-date
technologies such as computer and the internet in classrooms makes its possible
for students to learn with greater speed and higher efficiency and fell
satisfied by attending the classroom. Therefore, teachers needed to know much
about new technologies and media and treat them with a positive attitude.
of the Study
general purpose of this study is to investigate teachers’ attitude towards the
use of ICT in teaching English Language in Ilorin, Kwara State. Specifically,
the study sought to:
find out ICT availability for teaching
English Language in Ilorin, Kwara State.
find out the attitude of English
Language teachers towards the use of ICT for teaching.
determine the difference in teachers’
use of ICT for teaching English Language based on their gender.
ascertain difference in teachers’ use of
ICT for teaching English Language based on their qualification.
find out the difference in teachers’ use
of ICT for teaching English Language based on their of experience.
following research questions were put forward to guide the conduct of this
Are ICT gadget available in Secondary
Schools in Kwara State for teaching English Language?
What are teachers’ attitude towards the
use of ICT for teaching English language in Kwara State?
What are the gender difference in the use
of ICT for teaching English language in Kwara State?
What are the differences in the
qualification of teachers in using ICT gadget for teaching English Language?
What are the years of experience of
teachers in the use of ICT for teaching English Language?
following research hypotheses were analyzed based on the purposes of the study
and research questions:
H01 There is no significant
difference in teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching English
Language based on gender.
H02 There is no significant
difference in teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching English
Language based on qualification.
H03 There is no significant
difference in teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching English
Language based on years of teaching experience.
of the Study
this study focuses attention on the Teachers Attitude towards the use of
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for teaching English Language in
Ilorin, Kwara State.
The population of the
study covered the English Language teachers in both public and private schools
in Ilorin, Kwara State. The analytical focus of the study had a researcher-designed
questionnaire on method, techniques, limitation on the use, benefit and
advantages alongside with the disadvantages of the use of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) by English teachers in Senior Secondary Schools
and the attitude of teachers towards ICT use (both positive and negative).
Definition of Terms
A teacher is a person who is trained to teach especially in a classroom
setting. It is a person whose occupation is teaching.
A complex mental state involving beliefs, feelings, values and dispositions to
act in certain ways.
relation to something.
put into service; make work for a purpose or use as designed.
and Communication Technology is an electronic means of capturing, processing,
storing, communicating information.
Language: An Indo-European language belonging to the West
Germanic branch; the official language of Britain and the United States and
most of the commonwealth countries.
of the Study
The findings of this study are anticipated to
be of great benefit to the following stakeholders in education: students,
teachers, school administrators, the ministry of education, policy makers on
education, parents and future researchers.
The finding could be of
help to the field of education as it will expand the ICT knowledge and
effective ICT usage of English language teachers. It will make abstract content
of English Language to become real or concretized thereby making teaching to be
effective. English language teachers would be sensitized in reviewing the
techniques used in teaching English Language during the planning, the actual
teaching and post teaching stages. It will also create awareness among teachers
of English language on the importance of ICT as a teaching tool and changes
their attitude and practice toward improving their ICT base. The result of this
study would be of great help to teachers because once ICT is introduce into
classroom teaching of English Language, it will save time, energy, reduce stress
and enhance the effective teaching of English Language.
Moreover the finding may serve as reference
points for educational stakeholders in other parts of the world that would lead
to improvement of provisions of education among Secondary School Teachers and
it will also add new knowledge to the existing literature in Nigeria since
there are little ICT related researches, as such future researchers will
The study will help
policy makers in enacting laws that will mandate English teachers to use ICT
gadget or tools in teaching English language in schools in other to be able to
meet up with the world standard just like the native speakers.
It will also help
school administrators to plan to improve their schools by providing ICT for
their teachers for effective teaching and learning because most parents this
days are in search of schools where their children would have quality education
and learn about their environment and beyond and also be able to compete with
children from other schools and even other parts of the world.
This study would also
be of help to students by providing anxiety in them to desire schools where
they can learn more about ICT as it will prepare them for their future career
in the sense that no career exist outside ICT. Every profession all over the
world requires the use of ICT. Most companies can not employ anyone that does
not have ICT knowledge.
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