TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents v
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Background of study 2
1.3 Etymology 3
1.4 International tourism receipts 5
2.0 Literature Review 8
3.0 How to organize local and International tours 13
3.1 Package tours 15
3.2 Custom - designed tours 27
3.3 Independent tours 29
3.4 Hosted tours 30
Interpretation of Data 36
5.2 Conclusion 38
5.3 Recommendation 40
1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
development of indigenous manpower to serve as the propelling force for
national growth and development is no doubt a key to Nigeria’s socio-economic
and political development (Ake 2000). This is quite indispensable considering
the argument of the concept of transfer of technology as a propelling force for
the development of the developing countries of which Nigeria is one (Ake 2000).
it is important to state that the lack of adequate emphasis on manpower
development as a tool for development in Nigeria as well as the organized
private sector could not be far-fetched. The lack of understanding of both the
concept and methods for manpower development in a post-colonial Nigerian State
in which the process of human resource development for was distorted by
colonialism with the attendant negative orientation that was injected into
political leadership (Ekpo 2000).
is a key factor in enhancing the efficiency and expertise of the workforce. The
Students Work Experience (SIWES) program prepares students for labor markets.
It has become an innovative phenomenon in human resources development and
training in Nigeria.
According to Obisi
(2003), training and development aim at developing competencies such as
technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual
and organizational growth. George (2004) notes that “employee development
programs are becoming increasingly popular in organizations as they focus on enhancing the effectiveness of
their workforce. He noted that activities
that make up employee development include skill assessment, job experience,
formal courses and programs, and professional relationship. These activities
can be very costly in terms of time and resources, and must often be justified
by demonstrating their potential for adding value to the organization. Their
potential value however depends on the following outcomes for employees who
participate in these programs, for instance, learning, on-the-job behavior, and
results. If employees participate in development activities, it can benefit
both parties (employees and organization) the employees can benefit through
enhanced performance leading to greater rewards and career development. However
the organization can benefit through improved effectiveness and efficiency of
Organizations have realized this fact, and thus
are investing into employee performance management. Quite a lot of research has
been done to find out how to benefit from training and development.
Any organization has a prime
goal of attaining and maintaining being competitive, providing goods and
services that is relevant to satisfying the needs of both current and potential
customers, and being a force to reckon with in it, and related industry.
Achieving this goal is highly demanding, because factors that propel reaching
these goals is multifaceted.
Ripley (2003), noted that every manager no
matter what his or her role, knows that exceptional employee performance is
critical in today’s world. This suggest that managers need to move beyond HR’s
traditional performance management approaches and partner with line managers to
remove barriers to exceptional employees performance that exist in
organizational work environment. Ripley
noted that achieving exceptional employee performance involves taking systems
perspectives and looking not only at the employees, but also at the environment
in which we expect the employee to perform. it should be noted that when good
performers are put in bad systems, the
systems will win every time .it is also known that behavior in every facet of
our lives is a function not only of the person, but also of the environment-
more specifically, of the interaction of the person and the environment.
In Nigeria, it is not news
that the economy is not performing as it should, considering its potentials.
Many organizations, both private and public, cannot be said to be maximizing
the human resource as a tool kit, judging by their performances. The worst hit is the public sector,
particularly because of the attitude of both the government, on managing human
resources and concerns for employee empowerment and satisfaction, on the one
hand, and on the other hand, employees’ attitudes of reciprocal norms and
perception of public corporation being seen as a source of getting a share of
national cake which invariably makes the employees to demonstrates
dysfunctional job attitudes and behaviors. Thus, initiating a drive towards
orientating and training for all employees, particularly, the public sector
organizations is worthwhile.
In this period of economic restraint, it is
important that managers do everything possible to assist employees in
developing their on the job skills, thus, enhancing employees’ productivity.
The emphasis all over the world now is on human capital management, as earlier
noted, but this trend is yet to be significantly eminent in Nigeria. However
this shift is significant and deserves careful thought, by both private and
The relevance of improving the efficiency and effectiveness
of employee performance on the job cannot be over emphasized, The case of study
for this project work is one of the privately owned organisation, a force to be
reckon with in the banking industry and one of the key determinant of economic
growth and development in Nigeria that is Skye bank Plc.
Fajana (2002) noted, “A systematic approach to training and
development is requisite in competition oriented organization. Fajana is of the
view that objectives must form the focus of training programs, which would be
The mission of maximizing performance is
ultimately about aligning people and processes with the organizations goals and
objectives most organizations don’t have a
good plan to make this happen, much less a clear way of executing this
The human resources, as well as all elements in
the management team, marketing, finance etc together are responsible for
achieving sustainable development. But in particular, Human resources does this
through employee recruitment and retention, motivation and training and
Training and development, depending on its kind
and frequency should have positive impact on changing job attitude and behavior.
If this is certain, then improved productivity at work is heightened.
is a key factor in enhancing the efficiency and expertise of the workforce. The
industrial training fund program prepares students for labour markets. It has
become an innovative phenomenon in human resources development and training in
to Ochiagha (2005) practical knowledge is learning without which mastery of an
area of knowledge may be too difficult to achieve. Practical knowledge involves
developing skills through the use of tools or equipment to perform tasks that
are related to a field of study. No society can achieve meaningful progress
without encouraging its youth to acquire necessary practical skills. Such
skills enable them to harness available resources to meet the needs of society.
It was against this background that Industrial training fund (ITF), was
introduced in Nigerian.
training fund (ITF) is a skill development program designed to prepare students
of universities, polytechnics/monotechnics, and colleges of education for
transition from the college environment to work (Akerejola 2008).
to Oyedele (1990) work experience is an
educational program in which students participate in work activities while
attending school. This work experience gives students the opportunity to be
part of an actual work situation outside the classroom. The industrial training
fund is a cooperative industrial internship program that involves institutions
of higher learning, industries, the federal government of Nigeria, Nigerian
Universities Commission (NUC) and NBTE/NCCE in Nigeria.
typical example of the manifestation of the concept manpower development could be viewed from the perspective of the
Nigerian educational system which is anchored on the 9-3-4 system which sought
to address the manpower need of the country through mechanisms geared towards
developing manpower that would boost the nation’s socio-economic and
technological advancement (FGN, 1998).
the concepts of training and development could be used interchangeably in that
they are both encompassing of each other.
conception of manpower development encompasses both organizational specific
through training and retraining of staff to meet up with organizational
requirements, as well as the turning-out of human resources that is needed for
the economic development of the state.
Training, play an important role in economies as they act as a mechanism for
the distribution of high qualities manpower.
some cases, The Industrial Training), have proved more resistant to economic crises
than large corporations. This is because their capacity for regeneration and
flexibility is greater, even though individually they are more vulnerable as a
result of their size. Similarly, it has recently been shown that they have a
great capacity to integrate themselves into the productive processes of large
industry through subcontracting. As well as these advantages, the small firm
innovates with greater speed as its projects come to maturity in shorter
periods of time.
the Industrial Training, is currently facing the challenge of becoming part of
the globalization process while, in most cases, they are still confronting the
daily struggle to survive. Thus, the challenge is greater when it is combined
with other factors, like fragile negotiating power (financial, political, and
economic); weak unions and cooperation and lack of agile, sufficient, opportune
state support mechanisms.
to the size and nature of challenges, as well as the benefits involved in
having more competitive ITF, almost all the industrialized countries have been
obliged to establish policies, strategies and mechanisms to support these
entities. Thus, the promotion, support and, in some cases, rescue of ITF
take place by means of financing, technical and managerial training, access to
information, associative models between ITF and between ITF and large
enterprises, stimuli to collaborate with universities and ITF centers,
etc. Support mechanisms for ITF have
also been created in the country although their scope more limited. Nigeria has
not been the exception and has created various support programmed for
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
is no doubt in the fact that training and manpower development play an integral
part towards the development of any nation. The incapacitation and inefficiency
of the indigenous industries to grow and contribute to national development is
germane towards the introduction of the Industrial Training Fund (ITF). The main objective of the Industrial
Training Fund (ITF) is to enhance the capacity of the local and indigenous
industries. It is in line with this scenario that this study assesses the
operational efficiency of ITF in Lagos state, Nigeria.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
general aim of this study was to assess the operational effectiveness of
industrial training fund services delivery in Nigeria. The study has the
following specific objectives:
To identify the basic functions and
services of the industrial training fund.
To identify the core values and culture
of the industrial training fund.
examine the channels of communication and office procedures in the fund.
Apply the knowledge, skills and
corporate attitudes learnt on their day to day official functions.
To be the foremost skills training and
development organization in Nigeria and one of the best in the world.
Assess the perception of staff about the
role of industrial training fund in the discharge of its duties.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. How effectively managed
are the programmes of industrial training fund?
the industrial training fund effectively managed in terms of all operational
is the perception of the staff on the effectiveness of the industrial training
effective are industrial training fund in terms of programme results?
well do these ITF staff cope with changing work, technology, structure and
following hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance.
training funds programmes have not met is objectives.
is no correlation in the programme
management effectiveness of industrial training fund.
Industrial Training Programmes are not beneficial to the
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
develop a pool of indigenous manpower with required skills to serve the
Nation’s economy. The Industrial Training Fund (ITF), have been in operation
for almost four decades, a period that is long enough to achieve the objectives
to which it was set up. This study will provide information about the
capability with which these organizations have been performing their tasks.
finding will go a long way in contributing to the enhancement of direct
training, vocational and apprentice training and consultancy services, and also
build capacity for youth and graduate self employment in the context of small
scale industrialization in the economy and finally its finding will contribute
towards the efforts of ITF services in stimulate hu man performance and improve productivity, and support of management
of ITF, acquaint with the in-depth knowledge of the various arms of the fund
for effectively and efficiently perform the various. Functions assigned for the
overall achievement of the corporate objectives.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
study is limited to industrial training fund. It aimed at assessing the
operational effectiveness of industrial training fund in Lagos- Sate of
selecting industrial training fund, the researcher has based his choice
Proximity – that is, the ITF is well
organized and based in Lagos locality
The study is limited to ITF in Lagos
state to the exclusion of the other state in Nigeria.
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