Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
conceptual clarification of early marriage or child marriage
responsible for early or child marriage in Nigeria
and solutions to child marriage in Nigeria
responsible for lack of women education in Nigeria
role of education in the development of the women in Nigeria
of related empirical studies
of literature reviewed
Area of the Study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Technique
Instrument for Data Collection
Validity of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Method of Data Analysis
Summary of findings
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion of Findings
Summary of findings
Limitations of the Study
Suggestions for Further Studies
Background to the Study
the world all over, marriage is an institution which calls for a moment of
celebration and a milestone in the life of the adult. In practice, marriage is
not restricted to the adult; the girl-child may be forced into early marriage
without recourse to neither her consent nor the consequences of such forced
union. The impositions of a marriage partner upon a child means that the
childhood is lost and never regained (UNICEF, 2001). When children are hurried through
childhood, and rushed into taking on adult task (such as marriage at a very
early age, the effects can be profound and long lasting. Bayisenge (2010) noted
that young girls are robbed of their youth and required to take on roles for
which they are not psychologically or physically prepared. Many have no choice
about the timing of marriage or their partner. Some are coerced into marriage,
while others are too young to make an informed decision. Premature marriage
deprives them of the opportunity for personal development as well as their
right to full reproductive health, well being and participation in Civic life.
imperative to say that education plays a particularly important role as a
foundation for girls' development towards adult life. Education is a human
right that should be given to all human beings. There are lots of international
human right instruments that provide for education as a fundamental human right
which include the universal declaration of human right (1948), international
convention on economic, social and cultural right (1960) etc. The relationship
between education and development is well established such that education is a
lay index of development. Research has also shown that schooling improves
productivity, health and reduces negative features of life such as child
labour. This is why there has been a lot of emphasis particularly in recent
times for all citizens to have access to basic education. It has however been
established by researchers that improving female education is crucial for
national development. Education is a basic human right and has been recognized
as such since the 1948 adoption of the universal declaration of human rights.
Since then, numerous human rights treaties have reaffirmed these rights and have
supported entitlement to free compulsory primary education for all children. In
1990 for example, the education for all (EFA) communication was launched to
ensure that by 2015, all children particularly girls, those in difficult
circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities have access to and
complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality.
to UNESCO report, about 90 million children are not in school and majority of
them are children. Most girls do not have access to education despite the fact
that it is their rights. The girl-child is often saddled with responsibilities,
which may make her not to have access to quality education. 2007 UNESCO and
UNICEF report addressed the issue of education from a rights-based approach.
Three interrelated rights were specified and must be addressed in concert in
order to provide education for all. The three interrelated rights are:
right of access to education. That is, education must be available for,
accessible to and inclusive of all children.
right to quality education: Education needs to be child-centred, relevant and
embrace a broad curriculum and be appropriately resourced and monitored.
right to respect within the learning environment: Education must be provided in
a way that is consistent with human rights, equal for culture, religion and
language and free from all forms of violence.
true that many governments make provision for the education of their citizens
but the provisions most of the time do not take into cognizance the
peculiarities of the girl. In that case, the girl-child may not have access to
education, which is a fundamental human right. Research has shown that millions
of girls do not have access to schools despite the concerted efforts to push
the cause forward.
Nzewi and Njoku (2008) identify child labour, poverty and lack of sponsorship,
quest for wealth, bereavement, truancy, broken home, engagement of children and
house helps as factors or the clog in the wheel of girl's access to education.
The right to education, which is a fundamental human right, is frequently
denied to girls in some African countries. The then United Nations Secretary
General, Kofi Annan, stated that in Africa, when families have to make a choice
due to limited resources of either a girl or a boy child, it is always the boy
that is chosen to attend school. In Africa, many girls are prevented from
getting the education entitled to them because families often send their
daughters out to work at a young age so that they can get the additional income
they may need to exist beyond subsistence level and finance the education of
in Maduagwu and Mohammed (2006) notes that the importance of education in the
life of an individual cannot be over emphasized. Central to the most basic
problems facing the girl-child is her access to qualitative education. This is
because without education, the realization of all other rights e.g socioeconomic
and political rights becomes impossible. In the typical Nigerian setting,
education of the girl-child has not received serious attention. The general
apathy in this regard especially among parents has to do with the materialistic
concept of education, that is, the belief that the girl-child will eventually
marry and leave the family with whatever material benefits derivable from her
education to her husband's home. They would rather prefer to invest in the
education of the male child who is expected to marry in the family name
(Adewale, 1997). Traditionally, the role of women has been that of home
maintenance and rearing of children. Right from childhood, the girl-child is
prepared and trained with the ability of cooking, learning and all kinds of
chores in the home, all directed towards a better house wife. The gender role
type thus, poses a bias against the girls by the society. By and large, the
predicament of the Nigerian girl-child is enormous. Thus, in Nigeria, the
girl-child is faced with lot of problems and constraints, which act as serious
impediments towards her self-realization. It is therefore in line with the
above that the researcher intends to ascertain the implication of early marriage
on woman educational deployment in Nkanu L.G.A as the area of the study.
of the Problem
Despite the global efforts to promote
education, the overall rate of decline in education has been very slow. There
is however no doubt that the women folk have suffered depression and neglect in
the path of which they are derogatory regarded as second class citizens in so
many ways including their educational development. Girls and women constitute
50% of Nigeria's population. Ironically, less than 39% of the total female
populations are literates as against 63% literate male population (UNICEF,
2008). This is because in most societies, it is still considered irrelevant to
send the girl-child to school. The issue is about the girl- child. Considering
her roles in any society aspiring society aspiring for sustainable development.
Unfortunately, she has continued to be the subject of rejection,
marginalization and deprivation.
In Nigeria, the predicaments of the girl
child are better imagined than experienced. They rear their ugly head in the
area of denial of access to quality education, good health, survival and
incidence of child labour, child trafficking, prostitution, early marriage and
ritual sacrifices. Against this backdrop, it becomes pertinent to ask: what are
the implications of early on women educational development in Nkanu Local
Government Area. Thus, the problem this study seeks to investigate is the
implications of early marriage that women faces in an attempt to be educated.
The above problem forms the basis for the study.
Purpose of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to
assess the challenges of early marriage and its implication on women
educational development in Nkanu Local Government Area of Enugu State.
Specifically, the study aims at:
Ascertaining the causes of early marriage in Nkanu
Local Government Area.
Determining the roles education play in the
development of women in Nkanu Local Government Area.
Finding out how which impede the effective
education of women in Nkanu Local Government Area.
Finding out the strategies that will help to
reduce early marriage in Nkanu Local Government Area.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be beneficial
to many state stakeholders including girl child, parents etc. The study will be
beneficial to the girl child since it will help to create awareness to the
girl-child on the implications of early marriage and ways of avoiding them, so
that more interest would be put on education by completing her education before
getting married. Also the result of the study will help the girl-child to know
her rights. The study will help the girl- child to know that education is an
important agent of socialization, shaping values and attitudes to the needs of
the result of the study would help teachers create programmes, either once in a
week or twice which will guide early marriage and it implications on girl-
child education development and emphasize on it seriously. This is because
without education the realization of all other right e.g. socio-economic and
political right becomes impossible. In the typical Nigerian setting, education
of the girl child has not received serious attention. Again the girl child will
be able to know
strategies to reduce early marriage and embrace education to improve her life
style. It will prevent potential complications of early marriage and prolong
of the Study
This study is only confined to
investigating early marriage and its implication on women educational
development in Nkanu Local Government Area of Enugu State. It will also
investigate the causes of early marriage in Nkanu Local Government Area, the
strategies that will help to reduce early marriage in Nkanu Local Government
Area, the factors which impede the effective education of women in Nkanu Local
Government Area, and finally, the roles education play in the development of
women in Nkanu Local Government Area.
Based on the problem and the purpose of
the study stated above, the following research questions were drawn to guide
are the causes of early marriage in Nkanu Local Government Area?
are the roles education play in the development of women in Nkanu
Government Area What are the impediment of the effective education on women in Nkanu
Local Government Area?
What are the strategies for reducing early
marriage in Nkanu Local Government Area?
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