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Product Code: 00006720

No of Pages: 96

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The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between anthropometric variables and blood pressure among adults in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State. This study was a cross-sectional survey used to assess anthropometric variables and blood pressure of 429 rural adults from two different communities in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and anthropometric variables were collected using a structured questionnaire, while sphygmomanometer was used to access blood pressure. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. A P value of less than 0.05 was accepted at statistically significant. Results from this study revealed that majority of the respondents were males (52.9%) and more than half of the respondents (59.1%) were aged between 20-30 years. The major occupation observed in this study was artisan (34.7%), slightly more than half of the population had normal blood pressure and some had pre-hypertension or elevated blood pressure (24.2%).  Less than a quarter of the participants (23.8%) and (15.9%) were overweight and obese, respectively, while more than half of the participants (56.4%) had normal weight. Half of the participants (50.8%) had high risk waist-hip ratio while some (38.2%) had low risk waist-hip ratio. All the anthropometric variables, systolic pressure and BMI (r = 0.199, P<0.01), diastolic pressure and BMI (r = 0.218, P<0.01), blood pressure status and waist circumference (r = 0.231, P<0.01), showed a positive correlation with blood pressure, while an insignificant positive correlation (P<0.01) was observed between blood pressure status and waist-hip ratio (r = 0.057; p = 0.243). This study revealed a relationship between blood pressure and anthropometric variables of adults in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State. It is recommended that a healthy way of life such as maintaining a healthy diet and exercising should be implemented to reduce obesity and hypertension.


Title page                      i                                
Certification                  ii                               
Dedication                        iii                       
Acknowledgement              iv                      
Table of contents                    v                
List of tables        vii
Abstract viii
1.0 Background of the study        1                  1.1  Statement of the problem          3          
1.2  Objectives                                    5                
1.3  Significance of the study              5  
LITERATURE REVIEW            7                        
2.1  Adults                                              7          
2.2  Anthropometric method                                  7  
2.2.1  Weight                              8                
2.2.2  Height                                                  9                 
2.2.3  Body mass index                                    10        
2.2.4  Waist circumference          11               
2.2.5    Waist hip ratio (WHR) 12
2.2.6  Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC)    13
2.2.7  Skin fold thickness                          14        
2.3    Hypertension                14                      
2.4    Causes and consequences of hypertension                  17    
2.5    Dietary treatment and control of hypertension     18          
2.6    Prevalence of hypertension                     21  
2.7    Detection and diagnosis of hypertension            21              
2.8  Nutrition therapy for hypertensive patients  22                    

MATERIALS AND METHOD          24                      
3.1  Study design                          24              
3.2  Area of study            24              
3.3  Population study              25              
3.4  Sampling and sampling techniques      25        
3.4.1 Sample size determination                        25  
3.4.2  Sample procedure                26        
3.5  Preliminary activities                26              
3.5.1 Preliminary visit                            26        
3.5.2 Training of research assistance            27        
3.6  Data collection                                          27        
3.6.1 Questionnaire administration                      27  
3.6.2  Anthropometric measurements                          27  
3.6.3  Blood pressure measurement                        28  
3.7  Data analysis                                          29        
3.8  Statistical analysis                    33                                                                          
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                                   
4.1  Socio-demographic characteristics  34  
4.2 Blood pressure characteristics of the participants      38        
4.3 Anthropometric variables of the participants                41  
4.4 Relationship between anthropometric variables and blood pressure    44

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                    47        
5.1 Conclusion                                  47                      
5.2 Recommendation          48
References                        49                                                                  


Table 3.1 Classification of body mass index                    31                                                   
Table 3.2 Classification of high blood pressure         31                                                     
Table 3.3 Waist circumference classification            32                                                 
Table 3.4         Waist hip ratio classification            32                                                               
Table 4.1 Socio-demographic characteristics of the Participants  36

Table 4.2 Blood pressure classification of the participants     40   
Table 4.3 Anthropometric indices of the participants 43                                            
Table 4.4 Relationship between anthropometric variables and blood pressure  46


Hypertension is defined as systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or more and/or medication use for decreasing hypertension (Lebeau et al., 2014; Alhalaiqa et al., 2014). The world health organization (WHO) categories high blood pressure (BP) as the top risk factor for death rate, accounting for 13% of fatalities globally. Also, hypertension or “silent killer” as it is also known has been recognized as an important risk factor for cardiac arrest, stroke, kidney disease and increased mortality rates in adults (WHO, 2014). 

 In 2014, WHO announced that 39% (two billion) of the world’s adults were overweight and 13% (600million) were obese (WHO, 2014). The conditions of overweight and obesity are connected to more fatalities globally than being underweight. Also most of the earth’s population live in places where being overweight and obese kills more people than those who are underweight (This contains all high-income and most middle-income nations) (WHO, 2014).
Many studies have offered clear evidence that decreasing weight with a healthy diet and exercise can help individuals with high blood pressure (Campbell and Meckling, 2012; Tawalbeh et al., 2013; Batiha, 2014). Although there are many anthropometric indices that have been used to measure obesity, there is a debate about which of these anthropometric indices best defined obesity and contributes to the highest risk for causing hypertension (Wahar et al., 2012). The early detection of hypertension and identifying risk factors relating to high blood pressure would be an important preventive measures in the population .In Jordan, there are many studies that discuss obesity and hypertension (AlBashtawy et al., 2014).

According to Fosbol and Zerahn (2014), anthropometry is a strong tool in estimating body composition and specific distribution from models that utilize body circumferences and skinfolds. Hypertension is said to be greater than 130/90mmHg taken on three separate occasions and in different positions after a period of rest using a good and functioning sphygmomanometer. Normal blood pressure in an adult is approximately 120 millimtres of mercury (16kPa) systolic and 80 millimeters of mercury (11kPa) diastolic, (i.e. 120/80mmHg). The average blood pressure, age standardized, has remained about the same since 1975 to present at approximately 127/79mmHg in men and 122/77mmHg in women (Barlow et al., 2012).  In developing Countries such as Nigeria, the habit of routine check of one’s blood pressure is ones blood pressure is not common to practice. Most patients become aware of the problem when they go to the hospital for other related or unrelated ailment. Moreover, many people do not pay particular attention to what they eat, they consume whatever is available and affordable (Onimawo and Cole, 2003). Blood pressure, however, is influenced by cardiac output, total peripheral resistance and arterial stiffness and varies depending on situation, emotional state, activity and relative health/disease conditions (MacGill, 2019). The blood pressure that is low is called hypotension and the blood pressure that is consistently high is hypertension (MacGill, 2019).

Blood pressure (BP) is one of the vital signs along with respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation and body temperature that is influenced by anthropometric characteristics of the human body (Cassani et al., 2009). Thus, elevated blood pressure is a well-recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, like coronary artery disease, stroke and heart failure (Cassani et al., 2009). That is to say, heart failure, stroke, and coronary artery disease are some of the various cardiovascular diseases associated with high blood pressure (hypertension) (Cassani et al., 2009). Meanwhile, many people with hypertension (elevated blood pressure) are unaware of their condition, and among those with hypertension, treatment is infrequent and inadequate (Ghosh and Bose, 2018). Therefore, there should be basic data on the prevalent socio-economic status together with and nutritional status of Ikwuano inhabitants that may have contributed to the increase of this disease in order to carry out a massive campaign on this menace. Amoah (2004) claimed that consumption of docosahexaenoic acid omega -3-fatty acids may reduce the risk of hypertension. There is a strong scientific evidence that omega-3-fatty acids significantly reduce blood triglyceride levels and regular intake reduce the risk of secondary and primary hypertension (Burt et al., 1997). Gelber et al. (2007), observed that although obesity is known to increase the risk of hypertension, which is elevated blood pressure, few studies have evaluated body mass index (BMI) across various ranges as a primary risk factor. Also, reports about cardiovascular diseases, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, in relations to anthropometric factors are very limited in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Nigeria (Adedoyin et al., 2008). Such knowledge gap is a potential danger to Nigerian adult population because failure to understand their anthropometric variables can trigger blood pressure thereby leading to such health problems like coronary artery disease, stroke, and heart failure. Cassani et al. (2009) noted that much exists about the most adequate anthropometric variables for detecting increased adiposity, especially in men, were abdominal fat accumulation may not be detected by many traditional indexes of obesity, like BMI.

The general objective of this study is to determine the relationship between Anthropometric Status and blood pressure among adults in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia state

The specific objective are to:

i   determine  the  socio demographic parameters of adults in Ikwuano

ii   determine  the Anthropometric variables of adults in Ikwuano

iii   evaluate  the blood pressure of adults

iv   determine the relationship between anthropometric variables and blood pressure among adults in Ikwuano.

Findings from this study will show areas of gap in the knowledge about hypertension, anthropometry and other related diseases. It will also enable adults in Ikwuano to be informed about the necessity of regular blood pressure and anthropometric check-up which will help to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and help them to adapt good nutritional habits that will improve their nutritional status. This study will help the ministry of health to know about the rate of incidence of hypertension in Ikwuano, so that they can map out a strategic solution that will help in reducing the menace. For the nutritionists and dieticians, this study will contribute to foster their knowledge of the effect of anthropometric characteristics on blood pressure in order to enable them function effectively in their professional services to individuals and organizations. 

For the health practitioners, the findings of this study will be useful to health practitioners by providing anthropometric information such as weight and BMI that may serve as medical history use for medications and for the knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors cum demographic data. It will help to reveal the level of overweight or obesity among the participants and thus provide on-hand information for health practitioners. 

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