ANALYSIS OF A SOAP PRODUCT (LUX)

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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00000423

No of Pages: 35

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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ABSTRACT

 The soap that is used for the analysis is Lux.  The analytical tests carried out on the soap are moisture content and free caustic alkali.  For the determination of the moisture content, the materials and reagent that was used are:

i.        The Porcelain dish

ii.       Glass rod             

iii.      Hot air oven

 

The reagents are:

i.        The petroleum spirit               

ii.       Sodium acetate

 

For the determination of the free caustic alkali, the material and reagent that was used are:

a)       Beaker

b)      Clam and Stand conical flask

c)       Pipette Separating funnel

d)      95% ethanol

e)       Ph enophthalein indicator

f)       Barium chloride   and

g)       Hydrochloric acid

 

After the analysis, it was observed that the percentage of water content was 20%, while the free caustic alkali was 0 – 05%.  Also after the analysis, it was found that soap that contains high caustic alkali will cause rashes and irritation of the skin.  And the one that contain high moisture will now shrink and will not fume well.  The soap (Lux) Analysed will be used for washing and general removal of dirty.  It will also enhance removal of dirty.  It also reduces the surface tension, and serves to remove odour and greasy surfaces.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

 

CHAPTER   ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     AIM AND OBJECTIVES

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3     HYPOTHESIS

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

1.5            LIMITATIONS

 

 

CHAPTER   TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES RELATED TO THE PROJECT

2.2     CLEANING ACTION OF SOAPS

 

CHAPTER   THREE

3.0     REAGENT AND MATERIALS

2.1     EQUIPMENT AND METHODS

 

CHAPTER   FOUR

4.0     RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     CONCLUSIONS

          REFERENCES

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION

The analysis of soaps has become necessary by the desire to rationalize test procedures and thereby adequately provide, for the requirement contained in soap to make it work effectively.

Soaps are the sodium or potassium salt of long chain, fatty acids and are produced by saponification of fats and oils with alkalis e.g. potassium hydroxide.

Lux soap, which is used for bathing and laundry, for it to be satisfactory for consumpti0on, shall be free from objectionable odour both as received and in water solution; it should not contain/have any active chlorine or oxygen.  It should not have any active that shall not contain any visible foreign matter posses good.  Lathering and cleansing properties and should have no injurious effect on the skin.  Also it should contain low water content, no impurities, and very small excess alkali.

It is made by the action of a hot caustic solution on tallow or fatty oils, with the simultaneous formation of glycerol, which at one time, was wasted or left in the soap, as it is still certain, glycerol is a valuable by product.  The reaction is as follows:

    3NaOH  +  (C17 H35 COO)C3H5                3 C17 H35 COONa +

     Caustic       Triglyceride                                  sodium stearate

     Alkali                                                                             (soap)

     C3H5(oH)3                                                               Glycerol


Soap can also be made by the action of caustic soda or fatty acid without producing glycerol.  The reaction is as follows:

          NaOH + (C17H35 COO)3C3H5            3C17H35COONa + H2O

          Caustic

          Soda           Stearic acid                                  Soap       Water

 

The NAFDAC STANDARD FOR QUALITY SOAP IS – 02 – 1526.

 

1.1     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

 

The aims of this study are:

(i)      To determine the moisture content of Lux

(ii)     To determine the free caustic alkali

(iii)    To know the quality and its durability

 

It is hoped that the results obtained in the analysis and its interpretation in terms of quality may culminate in suggestion that could lead to an enhancement of those characteristics of the soap.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.     The soap (Lux) analysed shrink and become soft when it contains high moisture content.

2.     The soap with high caustic alkali causes rashes and irritation irritating the skin.

3.     When glycerol, which is the valuable by product of soap separate, it will constitute a problem.

 

1.3     HYPOTHESIS

Ho      :         Lux Soap sold in Nigeria markets have the NaOH content

required of good soap.

 

H1      :         Lux Soap sold in Nigerian markets do not have the NaOH

content required of good soap.

 

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The product analysed will be used for washing and general removal of dirties.  It will also enhance removal of germs and also reduce the surface tension.  It will also serve to remove colour and greasy surfaces.

 

1.5     LIMITATIONS

In hard water, it is an ineffective cleaner.  Hard water contains salt of Magnesium, calcium and iron in solution.  When soap is used in hard water, calcium soap the insoluble calcium salt of the fatty acid and other precipitate are deposited as curds. 

     2R – C – O – Na+  +  Ca2+                         (R-C-O)2 Ca2+   curd. 

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