The soap that is used
for the analysis is Lux. The analytical
tests carried out on the soap are moisture content and free caustic
alkali. For the determination of the
moisture content, the materials and reagent that was used are:
i. The Porcelain dish
ii. Glass rod
iii. Hot air oven
i. The petroleum spirit
ii. Sodium acetate
the determination of the free caustic alkali, the material and reagent that was
b) Clam and
Stand conical flask
c) Pipette Separating funnel
d) 95% ethanol
e) Ph enophthalein indicator
f) Barium chloride and
g) Hydrochloric acid
the analysis, it was observed that the percentage of water content was 20%, while
the free caustic alkali was 0 – 05%.
Also after the analysis, it was found that soap that contains high
caustic alkali will cause rashes and irritation of the skin. And the one that contain high moisture will
now shrink and will not fume well. The
soap (Lux) Analysed will be used for washing and general removal of dirty. It will also enhance removal of dirty. It also reduces the surface tension, and
serves to remove odour and greasy surfaces.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES RELATED TO THE
2.2 CLEANING ACTION OF SOAPS
3.0 REAGENT AND MATERIALS
2.1 EQUIPMENT AND METHODS
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The analysis of soaps has
become necessary by the desire to rationalize test procedures and thereby
adequately provide, for the requirement contained in soap to make it work
are the sodium or potassium salt of long chain, fatty acids and are produced by
saponification of fats and oils with alkalis e.g. potassium hydroxide.
soap, which is used for bathing and laundry, for it to be satisfactory for
consumpti0on, shall be free from objectionable odour both as received and in
water solution; it should not contain/have any active chlorine or oxygen. It should not have any active that shall not
contain any visible foreign matter posses good.
Lathering and cleansing properties and should have no injurious effect
on the skin. Also it should contain low
water content, no impurities, and very small excess alkali.
made by the action of a hot caustic solution on tallow or fatty oils, with the
simultaneous formation of glycerol, which at one time, was wasted or left in
the soap, as it is still certain, glycerol is a valuable by product. The reaction is as follows:
3NaOH + (C17
H35 COO)3 C3H5 3 C17 H35
Caustic Triglyceride sodium stearate
can also be made by the action of caustic soda or fatty acid without producing
glycerol. The reaction is as follows:
+ (C17H35 COO)3C3H5 3C17H35COONa +
acid Soap Water
NAFDAC STANDARD FOR QUALITY SOAP IS – 02 – 1526.
1.1 AIMS AND
The aims of this study
(i) To determine the moisture content of Lux
(ii) To determine the free caustic alkali
(iii) To know the quality and its durability
hoped that the results obtained in the analysis and its interpretation in terms
of quality may culminate in suggestion that could lead to an enhancement of
those characteristics of the soap.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1. The soap (Lux) analysed shrink and become soft when it contains
high moisture content.
2. The soap with high caustic alkali causes rashes and irritation
irritating the skin.
3. When glycerol, which is the valuable by product of soap
separate, it will constitute a problem.
Ho : Lux
Soap sold in Nigeria markets have the NaOH content
H1 : Lux Soap sold in
Nigerian markets do not have the NaOH
required of good soap.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
product analysed will be used for washing and general removal of dirties. It will also enhance removal of germs and
also reduce the surface tension. It will
also serve to remove colour and greasy surfaces.
hard water, it is an ineffective cleaner.
Hard water contains salt of Magnesium, calcium and iron in
solution. When soap is used in hard
water, calcium soap the insoluble calcium salt of the fatty acid and other
precipitate are deposited as curds.
– C – O – Na+ + Ca2+ (R-C-O)2
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