• 0 Review(s)

Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007317

No of Pages: 101

No of Chapters: 1-5

File Format: Microsoft Word

Price :



Heavy metals which are directly discharged into receiving water bodies pollute and make them unsafe for use because of their extreme harmful effects on man. Adsorption is one of the effective methods for the removal of heavy metal ions from waste water. This work investigates the potential of a cheap and readily available adsorbent, the seeds of velvet tamarind in adsorbing Pb2+, Cu2+ and Fe2+ from aqueous solution. The effects of various parameters such as adsorbent dose, temperature, initial concentration, pH and contact time for adsorption of lead, copper and iron ions from aqueous solutions by tamarind seeds were examined. The experimental equilibrium adsorption data were tested using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Halsey and Harkins-Jura equations and their constants and correlation coefficients determined. Freundlich model showed the best fit to the experimental data as assessed from the high Rvalues. The adsorption isotherm results showed the following order of fitting:Freundlich > Halsey >Harkins-Jura > Langmuir.The result of the thermodynamic study showed the sorption process to be spontaneous. Adsorption kinetic data were studied using pseudo-first and pseudo-second order models. The results indicated that the pseudo-second order model gives better interpretation to the adsorption data. The experimental results show that velvet tamarind seed has a significant capacity for removal of lead, iron and copper ions from waste water streams.


Title Page                                                                                                           i

Declaration                                                                                                         ii

Certification                                                                                                       iii

Dedication                                                                                                         iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                           v

Table of Contents                                                                                               vi

List of Tables                                                                                                     x

List of Figures                                                                                                    xi

Abstract                                                                                                             xii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION                                                                  1

1.1 Background of the Study                                                                            1

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                            4          1.3 Aim of the Study                                                                                           4          1.4 Objectives of the Study                                                                               4

1.5   Justification of the Study                                                                          5 1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study                                                              5

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                     6

2.1 Brief History of African Velvet Tamarind (Dialium guineense)                 6                                    

2.2 Cultivation and Propagation                                                                       8

2.2.1 Chemical composition of fruit and seeds                                                 8

2.2.2 Health benefits of velvet tamarind                                                           9

2.3 Metal Uptake Ability of (Dialium guineense)                                            9

2.4 Heavy Metal Pollution                                                                                 10

2.4.1 Toxicity and sources of heavy metal contamination                                 10

2.5   Methods of Heavy Metal Removal                                                           11

2.5.1 Techniques for the treatment of heavy metals                                          12

2.5.2 Newest adsorption technology                                                                 14

2.6 Mechanism of Biosorption                                                                           15

2.6.1 Agricultural waste materials as adsorbents for

         heavy metal removal                                                                                 16

2.7 Utilization of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry                                         18

2.7.1 Basic principles of atomic absorption spectrometry                                 18

2.8 Mechanism of Adsorption Theory                                                               19

2.9 Factors Influencing Heavy Metal Removal by Adsorption                         23

2.10 Recovery and Desorption Study                                                               25

2.11 Feasibility of Adsorption                                                                           26

2.12 Some Toxic Heavy Metals in the Environment                                         27

2.12.1 Lead poisoning                                                                                       27

2.12.2 Copper poisoning                                                                                    28

2.12.3 Iron poisoning                                                                                         29

2.12.4 Zinc poisoning                                                                                        30

2.12.5 Cadmium poisoning                                                                                31

2.13 Adsorption Isotherm                                                                                  32

2.14 Kinetic Study                                                                                             37

2.15 Thermodynamic Study                                                                              38

CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHODS                                          40

3.1.1 Reagents used                                                                                           40

3.1.2 Instruments used                                                                                       40

3.1.3 Apparatus used                                                                                         40

3.2 Adsorbent Collection and Preparation                                                        41

3.3 Adsorbate Preparation                                                                                 41

3.4 Batch Adsorption Experiments                                                                   42

3.5 Data Analysis

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                           45

4.2 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy FTIR Analysis                           45

                      4.3 Effect of Contact Time on Adsorption of the Metal Ions by

                           Tamarind Seeds                                                                                           46

                      4.4 Kinetic Adsorption                                                                                     47

          4.5 Effect of Adsorbent Dosage on Adsorption of the

                Metal Ions by Velvet Tamarind Seeds                                                        49

                      4.6 Effect of pH on Adsorption of the Metal Ions by

                            Velvet Tamarind Seeds                                                                               51

                 4.7 Effect of Temperature on Adsorption of the Metal Ions by

                       Velvet Tamarind Seeds                                                                                    52

                4.8 Effect of Initial Metal Ions on Adsorption of the

                      Metal Ions by Velvet Tamarind Seeds                                                              53

               4.9 Adsorption Isotherms                                                                                        54

               4.9.1 Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models                                                    54

               4.9.2 Harkins-Jura isotherm model                                                                          59

               4.9.3 Halsey isotherm model                                                                                   60

               4.13 Thermodynamic Study                                                                                    62

              CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                         67

              5.2  Conclusion                                                                                                         67

              5.3  Recommendation                                                                                               68

                     References                                                                                                         69









2.1: Physicochemical properties of tamarind seed                                             10

4.1: Physicochemical Properties of Tamarind Seed                                           47

4.2: IR Interpretation                                                                                         48

4.3: Kinetic Rate Constant for Pseudo-first Order Reaction at 30OC                    53

4.4: Kinetic Rate Constant for Pseudo-second Order Reaction at 30OC          53

4.5: Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherm Values for Adsorption of Cu(II)  

       Fe(II) and Pb(II) Ions                                                                                 64

4.6: Halsey and Harkins- Isotherm Values for Adsorption of Cu(II)  

        Fe(II) and Pb(II) Ions                                                                                67

4.7: Activation Energies (Ea), InA for the Arrhenius plot                                70

4.8: Transition State Plot at 30OC                                                                      71       

4.9: Transition State Plot at 40OC                                                                      71

4.10: Transition State Plot at 50OC                                                                    71

4.11: Transition State Plot at 60OC                                                                    72

4.12: Transition State Plot at 70OC                                                                    72

4.13:  Transition State Plot at 80OC                                                                   72







               LIST OF FIGURES

                      4.1: Effect of Contact Time on Adsorption of the Metal Ions by the

                             Adsorbent                                                                                                  50

4.2: Pseudo-first Order Plot for Adsorption of the Metal Ions                         52

4.3: Pseudo-second Order Plot for Adsorption of the Metal Ions                    52

4.4: Effect of Adsorbent Dosage on Adsorption of the Metal Ions by the

        Adsorbent                                                                                                  55

4.5: Effect of pH on Adsorption of the Metal Ions by the Adsorbent             57

4.6: Effect of Temperature on the Amount Adsorbed

       onto the Adsorbent                                                                                     58

4.7: Variation of Amount Adsorbed with Initial Metal Ion Concentration

        for the Adsorption Process                                                                                    60

4.8: Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm Plots of Fe(II), Cu(II)and Pb(II) Ions by

       Tamarind Seeds                                                                                           63

4.9: Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm Plots of Cu(II), Fe(II)and Pb(II) Ions

       by Tamarind Seeds                                                                                     64                                                           4.10: Harkins-Jura Isotherm Plots of Fe(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II)Ions by

          Tamarind Seeds                                                                                       66

4.11: Halsey Isotherm Plots of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Fe(II) Ions by Tamarind

         Seeds                                                                                                         67

4.12: Van’t Hoff Plots for Adsorption of the Metal Ions onto the Adsorbent at

          30OC, 40OC, 50OC, 60OC, 70OC and 80OC                                                69

4.13: Transition State Plots for Adsorption of the Metal Ions onto the

         Adsorbent at 30OC, 40OC, 50OC, 60OC, 70OC and 80OC                           70









       CHAPTER 1




  Heavy metal toxicity is a cause of concern to man and his environment. It is well known that heavy metals are very toxic elements and their discharge into the receiving water bodies causes detrimental effects on human health and environment (Sud et al., 2008). Due to the uncontrolled, increasing development in agriculture, industry, commerce, hospital and health-care facilities, many industrial activities are consuming significant quantities of toxic chemicals and generating a large amount of hazardous wastes. An increase in the use of metals and chemicals in these industries has resulted in accumulation of large quantities of effluents that contain high levels of toxic heavy metals and their presence is life threatening due to their non-degradability. Heavy metals once introduced into the environment are difficult to be destroyed or degraded technically or mechanically into harmless end- products. They persist over time in all parts of the environment including the food we eat and the water we drink causing pollution of air, soils and water (Apha, 1985). Almost all heavy metals are highly toxic when their concentrations exceed their permissible limit in the ecosystem. High concentration of  heavy metals may accumulate in the human body once present in human food chain and possibly in effect, cause severe health problems if they exceed the permitted concentration (Babel and  Kurniawan, 2011). These heavy metals are of specific concern due to their toxicity, bio-accumulating tendency and persistency in nature, hence, the need to reduce their bioavailability, mobility and toxicity. But just as heavy metals have their negative effects, they also have positive effects. For instance, in small quantities, certain heavy metals are nutritionally essential for healthy life such as Fe, Cu, Zn and so on. These elements, or some form of them, are commonly found in foodstuff such as fruits, vegetables and in commercially available multivitamin products. Heavy metals are also common in industrial applications such as in the manufacture of pesticides, batteries, alloys, electroplated metal parts, textile dyes, steel and mining, refining ores, fertilizer industries, paper industries and so forth. Many of these products are in our homes and actually add to our quality of life when properly used. But the truth is that their negative effect is a severe headache to mankind. Hence, the need for reduction or better still the removal of heavy metals by cheap materials and simple methods such as adsorption.

Adsorption process has become one of the preferred methods for removing toxic elements from aqueous solutions as it has been found to be very effective, economical, versatile and simple (Apkhami et al., 2010). Various conventional treatments have been tried and applied in the past in removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions and they include: filtration, evaporation, precipitation, ion exchange and activated carbon. Most of these methods are no longer in use because of their expensive and inefficient natures particularly when very low concentrations of the metal ions are involved.

However, adsorption today is considered as one of the best methods in treating industrial and domestic waste effluents due to its enormous advantages including cheapness, availability, profitability, ease of operation and efficiency in comparison with conventional methods. In order to minimize processing costs, several research works have centered their interests on low cost adsorbents, such as agricultural waste by-products (Samantaroy et al., 1997). Adsorbents like the crushed seed of pawpaw has been used in metal adsorption (Ajmal, 1998). Adsorbents from plant wastes or by-products have been found to offer a low costs effective and eco-friendly alternatives to conventional treatment (Mikhail et al., 2002). Some agricultural wastes have been employed in several adsorption studies. For instance, use of sulphuric acid-treated rice husk (Srinivasan, 1988), Magifera indica (Ajmal, 1998), fly ash (Mall and Upadhyay, 1998), bamboo dust (Kannan and  Meenakshi, 2002) and so on.

Tamarind seed which is the adsorbent to be used in the present study is an underutilized by-product of the tamarind pulp industry. Only a small portion of the seed, in the form of tamarind kernel powder (TKP), is used as a sizing material in the textile, paper and jute industries. The present study involves investigating the potentials of tamarind seed as a biosorbent in the removal of Pb(II), Fe(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution. Various experimental conditions for optimum adsorption of the metal ions will be employed while the mechanism of binding of the metals to the biosorbent sites will be assessed using different isotherms and kinetic models.


                  1.2             STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The uncontrolled rise in the use of heavy metals and their compounds in our industries today present a possible human health risk. This is because heavy metals accumulate in our food chain and are toxic in nature. Agricultural materials mainly those comprising of cellulose materials that can adsorb heavy metal cations in aqueous solution are used in curbing these metals (Sun and Shi, 1998). The use of plant waste materials is increasingly becoming an important aspect in the adsorption of heavy metal ions which hitherto pose serious disposal problems and health threatening issues when decayed.

1.3             THE AIM OF THE STUDY

 This study aims at investigating the removal of the following toxic metal ions: Cu(II), Fe(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions using velvet tamarind seed.


1.4                        OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objectives of the study are to:

i)                    Investigate the effects of pH, initial metal ion concentration, temperature, dosage and contact time on the adsorption process.

ii)                  Evaluate the thermodynamic parameters on the feasibility of the adsorption process.

iii)                  Understand the likely mechanism of the adsorption through the applicability of different kinetics and isotherm models.

iv)                 Estimate the sorption capacity of tamarind seeds in removing toxic heavy metals: Cu(II), Fe(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions.


Due to the toxic and harmful effects of heavy metals, industrial waste products should be properly treated before they are directly discharged into the water bodies. Naturally, heavy metals are persistent in nature, highly toxic and also non-biodegradable. One of the ways for removing harmful effects of heavy metals is through the use of agricultural waste adsorbents due to   their inexpensiveness and effectiveness unlike the convectional methods which are expensive, ineffective with low metal concentrations and generate large quantities of sludge. For large scale treatment of waste water, natural plant waste materials are used and in this case velvet tamarind seed was assessed for its potential to adsorb the following metal ions Pb, Cu and Fe from aqueous environment because of its availability and cheapness.



 This work will centre on investigating the influence of adsorption parameters on the removal the choice of heavy metal ions from solution so as to establish the optimum experimental conditions for the sorption process. The study will also cover the thermodynamics, kinetics and equilibrium of the adsorption process in order to establish the feasibility and the likely mode of bonding of the metals to the adsorbent surface.

Click “DOWNLOAD NOW” below to get the complete Projects


+(234) 0814 780 1594

Buyers has the right to create dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when you experience issue with the file received. 

Dispute can only be created when you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of contents and content of the file you received. shall either provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and Conditions are applied.

Buyers are expected to confirm that the material you are paying for is available on our website and you have selected the right material, you have also gone through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.

In case of payment for a material not available on, the management of has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that is available on our website within 48 hours.

You cannot change topic after receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.

Ratings & Reviews


No Review Found.

To Review

To Comment